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Chapter 1   Motion  
When is an object in motion?   An object is in motion when its distance from another object is changing.  
What is a reference point?   A reference point is a place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion.  
What is the International System of Units?   Also known as SI, or system international, this is a system of measurements which scientists use all around the world to communicate information clearly.  
What is the main unit of length in SI?   The main unit of length in SI is the meter, which is a bit longer than a yard.  
What is speed?   Speed's the distance an object travels in a certain amount of time.  
How do you calculate speed?   Speed = Distance/Time. The meaurement is meters per second or m/s  
When is an object at a constant speed?   An object is at a constant speed if the speed of that object does not change.  
How do you find an objects average speed?   To find an objects average speed you divide the total distance of the trip, and divide it by the total time to travel that distance.  
When do you know the velocity of an object?   When you know the speed and direction of an object's motion, you will know its velocity. Basically, velocity is speed in a certain direction.  
What a slope of a graph?   A slope is the steepness or slant of a line on a graph.  
How do you calculate slope?   slope = rise/run  
What is acceleration?   Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes. Because velocity = speed in certain direction, acceleration refers to 1) increasing speed, 2) decreasing speed, or 3) changing direction  
How do you calculate acceleration?   Acceleration = Final Velocity - Initial Velocity, divided by Time  
What is a linear relationship?   If points on a graphed line rise the same amount each time, then the line has a linear relationship.  
What is a nonlinear relationship?   If a line on a graph doesn't rise the same amount each time, then it has a nonlinear relationship.  
Chapter 2   Forces  
What is a force?   A force is a push or pull.  
What is a net force?   The net force is the overall amount of forces after all of the forces are added together.  
What is an unbalanced force?   An unbalanced force is a force that will change an objects motion (cause it to start moving, stop moving, or change the objects motion)  
What is a balanced force?   Ballanced forces are equal forces acting on one object in opposite directions. Balanced forces will not change an objects motion.  
What is inertia?   Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist change in its motion.  
What is Newton's first law of motion?   Newton's first law of motion says that an object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will stay in motion, unless acted upon my an unbalanced force.  
What is mass?   Mass is the amount of matter in an object.  
What is Newton's second law of motion?   Newton's second law of motion says that the net force on an object is equal to the product of its accelration and its mass. (Force = Mass x Acceleration)  
What is friction?   Friction a force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each other. The strength of the force of friction depends on two factors: the types of surfaces involved and how hard the surfaces push together.  
What are the three types of friction?   The three types of friction are: 1) sliding friction, surfaces sliding on each other 2) rolling friction, objects that roll on each other and 3) fluid friction, objects that moves through a liquid or gas..  
What is gravity?   Gravity is the force that pulls objects together.  
When is an object in its freefall?   An object is in its freefall when the only force on a falling object is gravity.  
What is a projectile?   A projectile is an object that is thrown.  
What is air resistance?   Air resistance is a type of fluid friction that objects experience when they fall through the air.  
When does an object reach its terminal velocity?   An object reaches its terminal velocity when it reaches its greatest velocity.  
What is weight?   The force of gravity on a person or object at the surface of a planet.  
How do you calculate weight?   Weight = Mass x Acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/s squared)  
What is Newton's third law of motion?   Newton's third law of motion says if one object exerrts a force on an object, the second object exerts a force of equal magnitude in the opposite direction of the first object.  
What is momentum?   Momentum is the quantity of motion. Momentum is the product of an objects mass and its velocity. Momentum = Mass x Velocity. The unit of measurement for momentum is kilogram-meters per second (kg x m/s)  
What does the law of conservation of momentum say?   The law of the conservation of momentum says that the total momenum of the objects that interact does not change unless an outside force acts upon it.  
That is the end of Chapter 2 Take a break....there is more to come!!!   INTERMISSION  
Chapter 3   Forces in fluid  
What is pressure?   Pressure is the force that is exerted on a surface, divided by the total area over which the force is exerted. Pressure = Force/Area.  
What is the unit of measurement for pressure?   The unit of measurement for pressure is called a pascal, Pa, which equals 1 Newton meter squared (1N/m squared)  
What is a fluid?   A fluid is a substance that can easily flow. Because it can flow easily, it can easily take different shapes.  
What does Pascals principle state?   Pascals principle says that when a force is applied to a convined fluid, the pressure is applied equally to all parts of the fluid.  
What do hydraulic systems do?   Hydraulic systems multiplies a force by applying the force to a small surface area. The increase in pressure is then transmitted to another part of a confined fluid, which pushes on a larger surface area.  
What is a buoyant force?   A buoyant force is a force that water exerts on a submerged object and acts in an upward direction against the force of gravity which makes the objects feel lighter.  
What does Archimedes' principle say?   Archimedes' principle says that the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.  
What is density?   Density is the measurement of how much mass of a substance is contained in a unit of volume.  
An object that is more dense than the fluid it is in will...   Sink  
An object that is less dense than the fluid it is in will...   Float  
An object that has equal density to the water that it is in will...   Suspend in the water  
What does Bernoulli's principle say?   Bernoulli's principle says that pressure exerted by a moving stream of fluid is less than the pressuer of the surrounding fluid.  
Chapter 4   Work and Machines  
What is work?   In science, you do work on an object when you exert a force on the object that causes the object  
In order to do work on an object, you must....   1) make the object move some distance, 2) have the force you exert be in the same direction of the objects motion.  
How do you calculate work?   Work = Force x Distance. The unit of measurement for work is a joule, or J, which is a Newton meter, Nm  
How does a machine make work easier?   A machine makes work easier by changing the amount of force you exert, the distance which you exert your force, or the direction in which you exert your force.  
What is an input force?   An input force is the force you exert onto a machine.  
What is an output force?   An output force is the force exerted by the machine.  
What is a machines mechanical advantage?   A machine's mechanical advantage is the number of times a force exerted on a machine is multiplied by the machine.  
What is the formula to find the mechanical advantage of a machine?   Mechanical advantage = Output force/Input force.  
What is a machine's efficiency?   The efficiency of a machine compares the output work to the input work. It is expressed as a percent.  
What is the formula to find efficiency?   Efficiency = Output force/Input force x 100%  
What is an actual mechanical advantage?   The actual mechanical advantage of a machine is the mechanical advantage that a machine provides in a real situation.  
What is an ideal mechanical advantage of a machine?   The ideal mechanical advantage of a machine is the mechanical advantage without friction. The more efficient a machine is, the closer the actual mechanical advantage is to the ideal mechanical advantage.  
What are the six basic types of simple machines?   The six types of simple machines are: 1) the inclined plane, 2) the wedge, 3) the screw, 4) the lever, 5) the wheel and axle, 6) the pulley.  
What is an inclined plane?   An inclined plane is a flat slanted surface. (ex. ramp.)  
How do you find the ideal mechanical advantage of an inclined plane?   To find the mechanical advantage of an inclined plane, divide the length of the incline by its height.  
What is a wedge?   A wedge is a device that is thick at one end and tapers to a thin edge at the other end. (ex. axe)  
What is a screw?   A screw can be thought of as an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder. (ex. twisty slide)  
What is a lever?   A lever is a rigid bar that is free to pivot or rotate, about a fixed point. (ex. seesaw)  
What is a fulcrum?   A fulcrum is the fixed point that a lever pivots around.  
How do you find the ideal mechanical advantage of the lever?   To find the ideal mechanical advantage of a lever, you divde the distance from the fulcrum to input force, by the distance from the fulcrum to the output force.  
What is a wheel and axle?   A wheel and axle is a simple machine made of two circular or cylindrical objects that rae fastened together and that rotate abouta common axis. (ex. car)  
How do you find the ideal mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle?   To find the ideal mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle, you divide the radius of the wheel, by the radius of the axle.  
What is a pulley?   A pulley is a grooved wheel with a rope, or chain, or steel cable, wrapped around it.  
How do you find the mechanical advantage of a pulley?   The ideal mechanical advantage of a pulley system is equal to the number of sections of the rope that support the object. (ex. flagpole).  
What is a compound machine?   A compound machine is a machine that has 2 or more simple machiens in it. (ex. mechanical pencil sharpener).  
What are gears?   A gear is 2 or more wheels locked together by interlocking teeth.  
What are tendons?   Tendons are the tissue which attach your muscles to your bones.  
Chapter 5   Energy and Power  
What is energy?   Energy is the ability to do work or cause change.  
What are the 2 types of energy?   The two types of energy are: 1) kinetic energy, and 2) potential energy.  
What is kinetic energy?   Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.  
How do you calculate kinetic energy?   Kinetic Energy = Mass x Velocity squared, divided by 2.  
What is potential energy?   Potential energy is energy that is stored and held in readiness.  
What types of potential energy are there?   1) Elastic potential energy, potential energy associated with objects that can be stretched or compressed., and 2) gravitational potential energy, energy that depends on height.  
How do you calculate gravitational potential enrgy   Gravitational potential energy = Weight x Height.  
What is the unit of measurement for energy?   The unit of measurement for energy is a joule, J  
What is the calculation for gravitational potential energy if you don't know the weight?   Gravitational potential energy = Mass x Gravitational acceleration (9.8 m/s) x Height.  
What are the 6 major forms of energy?   1) Mechanical Energy, 2) Thermal Energy, 3) Chemical Energy, 4) Electrical Energy, 5) Electromagnetic Energy, 6) Nuclear Energy.  
What does the law of conservation of energy say?   The law of conservation of energy says that when one form of energy is converted to another, no energy is destroyed in the process.  
What is power?   Power is the rate at which work is done or the amount of work is done in a unit of time.  
How do you calculate Power?   Power = Force x Distance divided by Time. The unit of measurement for power is 1 watt, which is equal to 1 Joule per second.  


   





 
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