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Duke PA micro

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What are the four medically important clostridium infections?   C. perfringens, C. botulinum, C. tetani, C. difficile  
How does C. perfringens grow in vitro?   easily and rapidly  
Human disease caused by C. perfringens   ranges from mild gastroenteritis to severe myonecrosis  
5 serotypes of C. perfringens   A-E  
Which serotypes of C. perfringens responsible for most human disease?   type A  
virulence factors - C. perfringens   "lethal toxins"  
A-toxin   a lecithinase is produced in large quantities by type A strains of C. perfringens  
How does C. tetani grow in vitro?   difficult to grow in vitro  
What is characteristic of C. tetani on Gram stain?   terminal endospore  
Virulence factors - C. tetani   hemolysin, neurotoxin  
What does the neurotoxin in C. tetani do?   causes clinical expression of tetanus by blocking neurotransmitter release  
What is the etiologic agent of botulism?   C. botunlinum  
What groups is C. botulinium divided into?   I, II, III, IV - likely represents 4 different species  
What modulates disease cause by C. botulinum?   neurotoxin, types A-G (antigenically distinct)  
What are the three clinical presentations of botulism?   food borne, infant botulism, wound botulism  
What is the most common etiologic agent of antibiotic associated colitis (AAC)?   C. difficile  
C. difficile - normal flora   GI, in some  
What are the virulence factors of C. difficile?   toxin A: enterotoxin toxin B: cytotoxin  
What allows C. difficile to survive in hospital environment?   spore formation  
Where is C. difficile infection increasing?   in community outpatient populations - scary!!  
Is C. difficile an anaerobe or aerobe?   strict anaerobe  
What are the symptoms of AAC?   can be anything from relatively mild diarrhea to colectomy  
Lactobacillus - normal flora   mouth, GI, GU  
How is lactobacillus often recovered?   in large numbers of specimens (especially urine) as "contaminents"  
What are the clinical presentations of lactobacillus?   transient bacteremia, endocarditis, opportunistic septicemia  
How do mobiluncus and gardnerella appear on Gram stain?   Gram negative or Gram variable  
How are mobiluncus and gardnerella classified (gram negative or positive)?   gram positive  
Why are mobiluncus and gardnerella gram positive?   Gram positive cell wall, antibiotic susceptibility similar to Gram positive, lack endotoxin  
Where do mobiluncus and garnerella colonize in large numbers?   female genital tract  
What happens to number of mobiluncus and gardnerella in bacterial vaginitis?   increase dramatically  
Mobiluncus spp   M. curtisii, M. mulieris  
Propionibacterium   genus of small, gram positive rods  
How do propionibacterium appear on gram stain?   clumps or chains  
Is propionibacterium an aerobe or anaerobe?   anaerobes: some aerotolerant  
Propionibacterium - normal flora   skin, oropharynx, female genital tract  
Most medically important species of Propionibacterium   P. acnes  


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Created by: ges13 on 2009-10-05

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