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Anatomy   The study of structure  
Physiology   The study of function  
Homeostasis   Relative constancy of the internal environment  
Midline   Divides the body into equal right and left halves  
Medial   Toward the midline  
Lateral   Away from the midline  
Proximal   Closest to the point of origin or the trunk  
Distal   Furthest from the point of origin or the trunk  
Anterior   Front of the body in anatomical position  
Posterior   Back of the body in anatomical position  
Ventral   Front of the body in anatomical position  
Dorsal   Back of the body in anatomical position  
Superior   Toward the head  
Inferior   Toward the feet  
Superficial   Near the surface  
Deep   Farther from the surface  
Contralateral   Opposite sides  
Ipsilateral   Same side  
Antebrachium   Forearm  
Antecubital   Depression on the anterior side of the elbow  
Axillary   Armpit  
Brachium   Arm  
Buccal   Cheek  
Carpal   Wrist  
Cephalic   Head  
Cervical   Neck  
Crural   Anterior leg  
Cubital   Elbow  
Cutaneuos   Skin  
Digital   Fingers and toes  
Femoral   Thigh  
Inguinal   Groin  
Olecranon   Elbow  
Opthalamic   Eye  
Palmar   Palm of the hand  
Pedal   Foot  
Plantar   Sole of the foot  
Popliteal   Posterior knee  
Phalangeal   Fingers and toes  
Sural   Posterior leg  
Tarsal   Ankle  
Oral   Mouth  
Orbital   Around the eye  
Thoracic   Chest  
Pulmonary   Lungs  
Cardiac   Heart  
Hepatic   Liver  
Renal   Kidney  
Midsagittal   Divides the body into equal right and left halves  
Sagittal   Divides the body into unequal right and left parts  
Frontal   Divides the body into anterior and posterior parts  
Coronal   Divides the body into anterior and posterior parts  
Transverse   Divides the body into superior and inferior parts  
Horizontal   Divides the body into superior and inferior parts  
Structural levels of organization   Atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, system  
Cell   The smallest living structural unit  
Ventral Cavity   Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic  
Dorsal Cavity   Cranial, Spinal, CNS  
Thoracic Cavity   Right and left pleura, Mediastinum  
Right and left pleura   Right and left lungs  
Mediastinum   Heart, trachea, vena cava, esophagus  
Abdominal Cavity   Right hypocondriac, epigastric, left hypocondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right inguinal, hypogastric, left inguinal  
Right Hypocondriac   Liver  
Epigastric   Liver, stomach  
Left Hypocondriac   Pancreas, spleen  
Right Lumbar   Ascending colon  
Umbilical   Transverse colon  
Left Lumbar   Descending colon  
Right Inguinal   Cecum, vermiform appendix  
Hypogastric   Bladder  
Left Inguinal   Sigmoid colon  
Pelvic Cavity   Bladder and some reproductive organs  
Diaphragm - location   Divides the thoracic and abdominal cavities  
Diaphragm - function   One of the three major body pumps, moving both air and fluid  
Cranial Cavity   Brain  
Spinal Cavity   Spinal cord  
Supine   Face up  
Prone   Face down (on stomach)  
Lateral Recumbent   Side lying  
Cell Structure   Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, organelles  
Plasma membrane   Selectively permeable, double layer phospholipid membrane  
Cytoplasm   Specialized living material in cell membrane mostly made up of the organelles  
Organelles   Mitocondria, lysosome, golgi apparatus, ribosomes, nucleus, cilia and flagellum  
Mitocondria   Powerhouse, synthesizes ATP  
Lysosome   Digestion, sometimes selfdestruct  
Golgi Apparatus   Packaging center  
Ribosomes   Protein synthesis  
Nucleus   Brain, stores DNA  
Cilia   Hairlike extensions on the surface of the cell that promote one way movement of substances across the membrane  
Flagellum   Taillike projection of a sperm cell that helps propulsion  
Cell Reproduction   Meiosis and mitosis  
Meiosis   Division of sex cells from one parent cell into four daughter cells  
Mitosis   Division of somatic cells in a 5 step process from one parent cell into two identical daughter cells  
Mitosis - 5 steps   Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase  
Interphase   The resting stage where no active division occurs  
Prophase   Stage 1 of reproduction  
Metaphase   Stage 2  
Anaphase   Stage 3, clevage furrow appears  
Telophase   Stage 4, completion of division  
Passive Transport   The movement of substances from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, down the concentration gradient  
Passive Transport - Types   Diffusion and filtration  
Active Transport   The movement of substances from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration, up the concentration gradient (requires energy)  
Active Transport - Types   Ion Pump  
Diffusion   Substances scatter evenly throughout an available space; ie osmosis  
Filtration   Substances move through the membrane because of hydrostatic pressure  
Ion Pump   Carrier proteins move substances into or out of the membrane. Pinocytosis (liquids), phagocytosis (solids)  
Tissue - 4 main types   Connective, epithelial, muscle, nervous  
Connective Tissue   Most abundant; areolar, adipose, fibrous, bone, blood, cartilage  
Areolar   Sticky matrix that helps hold organs together  
Adipose   Fat tissue that stores lipids  
Fibrous   Collagen, Reticular, Elastic  
Bone   Calcified matrix made up of osteocytes  
Blood   Liquid matrix made up of plasma (liquid) and formed elements (solid) RBCs, WBCs, and platelets  
Cartilage   Gristle-like matrix made up of chondrocytes; Hyalin and fibrocartilage  
Hyalin   Provides flexibility and support  
Fibrocartilage   More rigid, greater stability than hyalin  
Thixotrophy   The property of certain gels (ie connective tissue) to become less viscous when shaken or subjected to shearing forces and returning to the original viscosity on standing  
Epithelial Tissue   Covers the body, lines body cavities, surrounds the organs and other structures  
Epithelial Tissue - membranes   Forms cutaneous, serous, and mucous membranes  
Cutaneous Membrane   Skin, largest organ of th body  
Serous Membrane   Lines closed cavities  
Mucous membrane   Lines surfaces that open to the exterior like in the respriatory, digestive, and urinary tracts  
Epithelial Cell Classification   By shape and arrangement  
Epithelial Shapes   Squamous, cuboidal, columnar, transitional  
Squamous   Flat, thin  
Cuboidal   Cube shaped  
Columnar   Taller than wide  
Transitional   Different shapes that can stretch  
Epithelial Arrangements   Simple, stratified, pseudostratified  
Simple   Single layer  
Stratified   Many layered  
Pseudostratified   A single layer packed so closely together that it appears to be more than one layer  
Simple Squamous   A single layer of very thin irregularly shaped cells. Exchanges. ie capillaries  
Stratified Squamous   Several layers of closely packed cells. Protects. ie epidermis  
Stratified Transitional   Found in areas that stretch, like the bladder, stomach, and especially the uterus  
Muscle Tissue   Striated or non-striated, voluntary or involuntary. Skeletal, cardiac, smooth  
Skeletal Tissue   Striated and voluntary  
Cardiac Tissue   Striated and involuntary  
Smooth Tissue   Non-striated and involuntary.  
Skeletal Tissue Regulation   By the somatic division of the PNS  
Cardiac Tissue Regulation   By the autonomic division of the PNS  
Smooth Tissue Regulation   By the autonomic division of the PNS  
Nervous Tissue   Made up of neurons and neuroglia, providing rapid communication and control of the body  
Neurons   Primary nerve cells  
Neuroglia   Support and protective cells for the neurons  
Integumentary System   Skin, hair and nails. Functions: temperature regulation, protection, synthesis of vitamin D  


   





 
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Created by: selfstudy08 on 2009-06-02



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