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reivew cards for KOHS Government Ap.

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A member of Congress who wishes to maximize his or her news media attention is well advised to do what?   Attack the president  
A process that limits the short-term effect of radio and television on voters is one that psychologists call what?   Selective attention  
According to James Madison what were the latent causes of faction were rooted in?   The nature of Man  
According to Peter Braestrup, in reporting the 1968 Tet Offensive, the media did what?   Played a North Vietnamese defeat as a victory  
According to recent polls, Americans claim to get most of their news from what source(s)?   Television  
According to the text, the principal reason why political candidates cannot be sold like a deodorant is what?   People are not stupid  
According to the text, why might candidates for local office choose not to advertise on television?   The media markers don’t align with their districts  
Americans are more likely to join what type of interest groups than Europeans?   Civic and religious  
An important tool that organizations like the AFL-CIO and Americans for Constitutional Action use to influence politicians’ behavior is the publication of what?   Legislative ratings  
Compared with local journalists, reporters and editors for the national media are more what?   Liberal  
Compared with the early years of the republic, the power and autonomy of newspaper editors and reporters in the United States today is what? [in terms of strength   Greater  
Could a member of Congress start a political action committee (PAC)?   Yes, and many of them do  
What is the definition of an interest group.   An organization that seeks to influence public policy  
Definition of, and examples of, institutional versus membership interest groups.   Institutional groups represent other organizations and membership groups represent individual people  
Describe the scholarly evidence that political action committee (PAC) money buys votes in Congress.   Slim at best  
For a newspaper to be found guilty of libel, the accused party must do what?   Provide clear and convincing evidence that the printing was malicious  
How do members of the national media compare to the average citizen in terms of ideology?   More liberal  
How do the different sectors of the media in the United States compare in terms of competitiveness?   Electronic media more competitive than newspapers, and becoming more so  
Ideological interest groups attract people by appealing to what?   A set of principals which is held in common and often controversial  
In recent years the relationship between the media and government officials has become what?   More adversarial  
In recent years, the process of renewing broadcast licenses by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has become what?   More relaxed and easy  
In the era of the party press, readers consisted of what types of people?   Educated business and intellectual elites  
One method used by lobbyists to convince undecided legislators that public opinion on an issue is inclined toward their direction is what?   To conduct a poll  
One type of political cue a legislator might look at before taking a position on an issue would be what?   What interest groups she usually agrees with think about the issue  
Public-interest lobbies typically make better progress when the administration is what?   Hostile  
Reasons for the formation of interest groups, and examples of this.   Social diversity, governmental fragmentation, weakness of political parties  
The content of radio and television broadcasts is regulated in ways that newspapers and magazines are not. For example, broadcasters are required by law to do what?   Allow individuals the right to reply to an attack  
The phenomenon of newspapers being financed by political parties and politicians developed when?   In the earliest days of our republic  
The reason Americans participate in civic associations more frequently than do citizens of other countries is what?   Higher sense of efficacy and civic duty  
The text argues that the U.S. Constitution contributed to the problem of press leaks how?   Separated the branches of government  
The text describes as a love-hate relationship the interactions between what two groups?   Politicians and the media  
The text states that the media typically report presidential elections as horse races. This means that they what?   Focus on who is winning rather than the issues  
To a remarkable degree, media ownership in the United States is what?   Dispersed (in a lot of different hands, in other words)  
To be effective, purposive membership organizations count on what?   Keep issues in the spotlight  
To have its license renewed, a radio or television station must do what?   Send in a postcard  
Two local newspapers that have acquired national readerships are what   The New York Times and the Washington Post  
Until it was abolished in 1987, what rule obligated broadcasters to present contrasting sides of controversial public issues?   The fairness doctrine  
What are the characteristics of the broadcasting industry in the United States?   Decentralized, local, privately owned  
What are the reasons for the proliferation of interest groups in this country?   Weak political parties, government fragmentation, social diversity  
What are the reasons that people join groups? Be able to recognize an example of each.   Purposive, solidary, material  
What are the roles of the national media? Be able to recognize examples of each?   Gatekeeper, scorekeeper, watchdog  
What characterizes the new era of electronic journalism?   A diminishing importance of the three big networks and a rise in popularity of cable entertainment  
What factors led to the development of less partisan newspapers in the nineteenth century?   Paid advertising reduced the need for government subsidies  
What is a membership interest?   One that appeals to individuals rather than organizations  
What is a solidary group?   One that appeals to personal motivations such as companionship  
What is an example of a typical activity that an institutional interest might conduct on behalf of a client?   Lobbying for favorable government treatment of an industry or business  
What is an institutional interest?   One that represents other organizations rather than individuals  
What is an interest group?   An organization that seeks to influence public polity  
What is illustrated by the many interest groups that contacted four-month-old Daniel Aaron Schlozman?   Interest groups share mailing lists with one another  
What is one explanation for the adversarial relationship that has developed between government officials and the media since Watergate?   Competition in the media  
What is the Dirty Dozen?   The most anti-environment legislators in the House of Representatives  
What is the main reason why most people who are sympathetic to the goals of a mass-membership activity group do not join it?   They don’t think it will make a difference  
What is the reason Congress does not receive as much media coverage as the president?   Congressmen are more specialized  
What is the relationship between the issue positions of a social movement and its size?   More extreme = smaller  
What might tend to make a reporter treat a public official favorably?   The hope of cultivating a source  
What types of Americans are most likely to join interest groups?   Upper SES  
What was an innovative news establishment set up in 1948 to provide systematic dissemination of news to publications of different political persuasions?   Associated Press (AP)  
When did significant live coverage of House committee hearings begin?   1974 Watergate Hearings  
When the New York Times sought to publish the Pentagon Papers and the federal government sued to prevent publication, what position did the Supreme Court take?   Allowed the publication  
Where does most of the national news that local papers publish come from?   Wire services  
Which amendment to the U.S. Constitution prevents the government from censoring the media?   1st  
Why can interest groups easily gain access to government in the U.S., as opposed to Great Britain?   Political parties are weak  
Why did electronic journalism probably contribute to the decline in party loyalties?   Politicians appeal directly to the people  
Why have unions declined in membership?   Less public support  
Why is information such an important commodity to interest groups and legislators alike?   Because it is scarce and important  
Why was the Carter-Reagan debate in 1980 sponsored by the League of Women Voters (LWV)?   Because the LWV didn’t have to include those other than the two major candidates  


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