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WVSOM Class of 2012 Early Morphogenesis

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

what is neurulation?   formation of the neural tube  
what does the neural tube form?   CNS  
the notochord causes the overlying ectoderm to differentiate into what structure?   the neural plate  
the neural plate forms from what tissue?   neuroectoderm  
the neural folds depress to form what?   neural groove  
the neural groove inverts and fuses to form?   neural tube  
the openings persisting before the final closure are called what?   cranial and caudal neuropores  
once closure is complete, what phase is completed?   neurulation  
the posterior of the neural tube forms what?   spinal cord  
the broad anterior portion of neural tube forms what?   brain vesicles  
lateral borders of the neural folds are called what?   neural crests  
after closure, the neural crest cells dissociate into what? what tissue are these cells derived from?   mesenchymal cells; ectodermal  
what are loosely woven, embryonic stem cells derived from the germ layer?   mesenchyme  
3 layers that the mesoderm differentiate into are?   the paraxial, intermediate, and lateral mesoderm  
which portion of the mesoderm differentiates into the urogenital system?   intermediate  
what develops in lateral mesoderm by coalescence of spaces?   coelom  
somatic mesoderm and ectoderm are called what?   somatopleure  
splanchnic mesoderm and endoderm are called what?   splanchnopleure  
the early embryonic coelom is open to what?   chorionic cavity  
the paraxial mesoderm segments into what?   somitomeres  
in anterior region, the somitomere forms near the neuromere and forms what?   head mesenchyme  
somitomeres in what regions become somites?   medial and posterior  
the somites differentiate into what 3 layers?   sclerotomes, dermotomes, myotomes  
what forms the bone and cartilage of vertebrae?   sclerotomes  
gut formation is what kind of process?   passive  
what structure connects the gut to the body and is the stalk of the yolk sac?   viteline duct  
the anterior end of the foregut that is anchored by the precordial plate is called what?   the buccopharyngeal membrane  
posterior of hindgut is anchored by what?   the cloacal membrane  
mesenchymal cells that form blood differentiate into what?   angioblasts  
cytotrophoblast cells that become organized into columns, extending into the syncytiotrophoblast (forming a major portion of the placenta) are called what?   chorionic villi  
cytotrophoblast cells surrounded by the synctiotrophoblast, these are the progenitors of all chorionic villi:   primary villi  
these structures are formed when extraembryonic mesoderm penetrates, producing mesodermal cores:   secondary villi  
villi that extend through the syntiotrophoblast are called what?   stem villi  
the maternal component of the placenta in endometrium is what?   decidua  
what is the name for hemolytic disease of the newborn?   erythroblastosis fetalis  
what is the most common Rh-antigen producing isoimmunization?   D  
what tissue generates the central and peripheral nervous systems, sensory epithelia of ears, nose and eyes, epidermis including hair and nails, subcutaneous and mammary glands, pituitary gland and teeth enamel?   ectoderm  
the lateral edges of the neural plate elevate to form what structures?   neural folds  
the cranial and caudal neuropores are open to what cavity?   amniotic  
what cells are stem cells for numerous structures (ganglia and cranial nerves, schwann cells, melanocytes, adrenal medulla, craniofacial bones, connective tissues and conotruncal heart cushions)?   neural crest cells  
what tissue produces muscle, connective tissue, cartilage and bone, blood and blood vessels, kidneys, spleen, gonads and suprarenal cortex?   mesoderm  
the somatopleure will develop into what structures?   the lateral and ventral walls of the body cavity  
In the cervical and thoracic regions the intermediate mesoderm produces segmental clusters known as what?   nephrotomes  
the somites' ventral and medial walls lose cohesion, producing mesenchymal cells that surround the notochord. These cell clusters are known as what?   sclerotomes  
after the ventral and medial walls of the somite lose cohesion, the remaining dorsal walls are called what?   dermomyotomes  
what "tomes" differentiate into the muscles attached to each vertebra?   myotomes  
what "tomes" produce the underlying dermis of the skin?   dermatomes  
what tissue produces the digestive tract, as well as epithelia and stromata for numerous other organ structures?   endoderm  
the embryonic circulatory system runs through which structures?   embryonic mesoderm, including the heart tube, splanchnic extraembryonic mesoderm, somatic extraembryonic mesoderm and connecting stalk  
when embryonic blood vessels develop in the cores, what villi are created?   tertiary villi  
Cytotrophoblast cells spread out between the syncytiotrophoblast and endometrium to form an epithelium known as what?   outer cytotrophoblast shell  
The lacunar network of the decidua expands and coalesces into what spaces between the villi?   intervillous spaces  


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