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Term
Definition
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E vs I==S vs N==T vs F==J Vs P   Personality Test with four characteristics Extroverted Introverted Sensing Intuitive Thinking Feeling Judging Perceiving  
MBTI Extroverted   Outgoing Sociable Assertive  
MBTI Introverted   Shy and quiet  
MBTI Sensing   Practice Routine and Order Detailed oriented  
MBTI Intuitive   Unconscious Process Looks at the "big picture"  
MBTI Thinking   Reason and logic  
MBTI Feeling   Personal values and emotions  
MBTI Judging Perceiving   Control Order and structure ==================== Flexible and spontaneous  
Big Five Model E A C E O   Personality Assessment/five basic dimensions Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience  
Big Five Model Extroversion   Comfort level with relationships Extroverts/Introverts  
Big Five Model Conscientiousness High and Low High and Low   Reliability High-dependable and responsible. Organized Low-unreliable and easily distracted. Disorganized.  
Big Five Model Agreeableness High and Low   Defer to others High-Warm and trusting. Cooperative Low-Cold and disagreeable.  
Big Five Model Emotional Stability Positive and Negative   Ability to withstand stress Positive-calm,self-confident and secure Negative-depressed, nervous, anxious and insecure  
Big Five Model Openness to Experience Open and close   Open People-creative,curious and artistically sensitive, Closed-Conventional and finds comfort in the familiar.  
Self-Monitoring   Ability to ADJUST BEHAVIOR to external factors  
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs P S S E S   Physiological Safety Social Esteem Self Actualization ========= Lower order needs P S Higher Order Needs S E S  
McGregors Theory X Theory Y   Theory X managers assumes employees don't like to work, are lazy. Coerced to perform due to lack of responsibility. Theory Y managers assumes that employees like to work, are creative and responsible. Self directed.  
Hertzberg's Two-Factor Theory   Job satisfaction Satisfaction opposite of No satisfaction Dissatisfaction opposite of No dissatisfaction  
McClelland's Theory of Needs A P A   Explains motivation Need for ACHIEVEMENT Need for POWER Need for AFFILIATION  
Three Component Model of Creativity E T T   Expertise Thinking skills Task Motivation  
Cognitive Evaluation Theory   Rewards seen as controlling  
Self Concordance   Reason for pursing goals=core values  
Management by Objective (MBO)   Sets goals that are tangible, verifiable and measurable  
Factors that Influence Perception P T S   Factors that shape of distort perception Perceiver Target (object being perceived) Situation (context in which perception is made)  
Attribution Theory C C D   Ways in which we judge people differently. Consistency Consensus Distinctiveness  
Attribution Theory Distinctiveness   different bhavior in different situations. Is behavior unusual? Yes=external attribution No=internal behavior  
Attribution Theory Consensus High or Low   Everyone shows the same behavior in the same way. High-external attribution Low-internal cause  
Attribution Theory Consistency   If actions respond the same way over time.  
Fundamental Attribution Error   Underestimate the influence of external factors and over estimate the internal factors when making a judgement about the behavior of others.  
Self Serving Bias   Attributes success to internal factors and blames failure on external factors.  
Selective Perception   Selectively interprets what we see.  
Halo Effect   Impression based on a single characteristic  
Contrast Effect   Distorted perception based on reaction by other people.  
Stereotyping   Judging someone based on group  
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy   Behavior determined by others expectations  
Steps in the Rational Decision-Making Model Six Steps D I A D E S   Define Identify Allocate Develop Evaluate Select  
Bounded Rationality   Complex problem reduced to were is can be readily understood.  
Overconfidence Bias   Too confident about an idea  
Anchoring Bias   Fixates on initial information about an idea and does not listen to additional information  
Confirmation Bias   Seeks out information that reaffirms past choices. Discounts information that contradicts past judgements.  
Availability Bias   Bases judgement on information that is readily available.  
Escalation of Commitment   Increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information.  
Randomness Error   Individuals that believe they can predict an outcome.  
Social Learning Theory   Learning through observation and direct experience.  
Rokeach Value Survey Terminal and Instrumental   Terminal-goals a person would like to achieve. Instrumental-means of achieving the terminal values.  
John Holland Person-Job Fit Theory   Matches job requirements with personality characteristics  
Person-Organization Fit   People seek organizations that match their values and leave organization that do not.  
Hofsteade's Five Value Dimensions of National Culture P I M U L   Power Distance Individual vs. Collectivism Masculinity vs. Feminity Uncertainty avoidence Long term vs. Short term orientation  
Hofstede Power Distance High and Low Power   Power in institutions/organizations is distributed unequally. High Power-large power and wealth. Tolerated (Caste) Low Power-society that stress's equality and opportunity.  
Hofstede Individualism vs Collectivism   Individualism-people act as individuals instead of members of a group. Collectivism-tight social framework. Looks after and protects each other.  
Hofstede Masculinity vs Femininity   Masculinity-culture that favors masculine roles. Power and control Femininity-culture that sees little difference between the sexes. Equality  
Hofstede Uncertainty Avoidance High or Low score cultures   Structured over unstructured situations High Score culture-use laws and control due to high level anxiety about uncertainty. Low Score culture-accepts change  
Hofstede Long term vs. Short Term Orientation   Society's devotion to traditional values. Long term-looks to the future Short Term-values the here and now. Accepts change.  
Organizational Culture   Shared meaning held by other members.  
Primary Organizational s Characteristics I A O P T A S   Innovative and Risk Taking Attention to detail Outcome orientation People Orientation Team Orientation Aggressiveness Stability  
Dominant Culture   Core Values a majority of the members share.  
Subcultures   Common problems/experiences faced in the same department or location  
Strong Culture   Core values intensely held or widely shared  
Organizational Climate   Shared perceptions about the organization/work.  
Institutionalization   Organization takes on a life of its own. Values self and not goods/service  
How a culture begins H I F   Hires and keeps who think and feel the same way they do. Indoctrinate and socialize to their way of thinking. Founders behavior encourages employees to identify with them.  
Socialization   Adapts employees to organizations culture.  
Sustaining a culture S A P   Selection process Actions of top management Penalize or expel those who challenge it.  
Creating a more ethical culture V C T R P   Visable role models Communicate Train Reward Provide protective mechanisms.  
Positive Organizational Culture B R I   Build on employee's strengths Reward more than punish Individual growth  
Work Group   No collective work Individual contribution No positive synergy  
Work Team   Coordinated effort through positive synergy  
Four Types of Teams P S C V   Problem Solving Self Managed work groups Cross Funtional Virtual  
Problem Solving Teams   Small Groups Discuss ways to improve quality,efficiency and work environment.  
Self Managed Work Teams   Takes on responsibilities of their former supervisors.  
Cross Functional Teams   Same Hierarchical Level From different work areas  
Virtual Teams   Remotely united via technology  
Multi team Systems   Different teams coordinate their efforts.  
Effects of Group Processes P + P - P = A   Potential Group Effectiveness + Process Gains - Process Loss = Achievement  
Reflexivity   Teams reflect and adjust their master plan when necessary  
Mental Models   Knowledge and belief about how work gets done  
Fiedler Contingency Model   Proper match between leaders style and degree to which the situation gives the leader control.  
Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)   Followers readiness  
Transformational Leaders   Inspires others to transcend their own self interests.  
Transactional Leaders   Leaders that guide or motivate  
Groups 2 Groups   Formal-Organizations structure Informal-Social groups  
Why people develop a social identity S S D U   Status Similarity Distinctiveness Uncertainty Reduction  
Uncertainty Reduction   group membership helps people understand who they are and how they fit into the world  
Five Stage Group Development Model   Forming-developmnent/uncertainty Storming-intra group conflict Norming-cohesiveness Performing-fully functional Adjourning-final step for temporary groups  
Punctuated-Equilibrium Model   Temporary groups transition between inertia and activity  
Group Property R N S S C D   Roles Norms Status Size Cohesiveness Diversity  
Group Property Roles Role P E C   Perception-how to act Expectations-others think you should act Conflict-difficulty complying with another  
Group Property Norms C R   Conformity Reference Groups-what one wants to belong to  
Group Property Status Status Characteristic Theory 3 Sources P P P   Power person has over others. High status Persons ability to contribute Personal Characteristics.  
Group Property Size   Small-faster/individuals perform better Large-better at problem solving  
Group Property Cohesiveness   Groups attractiveness to each other and motivation to stay in a group.  
Group Property Diversity   Similarity and difference from one another.  
Group Think   Group pressure for conformity  
Group Shift   Change between group and individuals decision.  
Interacting Groups   Face to face  
Brainstorming   Idea generating process encouraging any and all alternatives. Withholds criticism.  
Nominal Group Techniques 4 of them   Members write down individual ideas Members each presents idea Group discussion and evaluation Decision is highest ranked.  
Conflict Process 5 Stages O C I B O   Opposition Cognition and Personalization Intentions Behaviors Outcomes  
Collaborating   Satisfy concerns of all parties  
Avoiding   Withdrawing/suppressing a conflict  
Accommodating   support someone else s opinion despite your reservations.  
Compromising   Each party gives up something  
Negotiation   Negotiate scarce resources  
Distributing Bargaining   Win-lose situation  
Integrative Bargaining   Win-Win situation  


   





 
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Created by: Tammy Burns Davis Tammy Burns Davis on 2013-10-01



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