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Valhalla High School Bentley AP World Ch. 23

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Term
Definition
Significance
Time Period
Chapter
Region
Astrolabe   Navigational instrument for determining latitude. Developed by Chinese and diffused into Indian Ocean Basin by 11th century.   European saliors ability to determine latitude enabled them to assemble data about the earth's geography and find their way around the world's ocean with accuracy.   1486   23   Mediterranean  
"Wind Wheels"   Prevailing wind patterns in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans north and south of the equator; their discovery made sailing much safer and quicker.   After mariners understood the wind patterns, they were able to take advantag and sail to almost any part of the world.   1500-1800   23   Indian Ocean basin  
Volta do Mar   "Return through the sea," a fifteenth-century Portuguese sea route that took advantage of the prevailing winds and currents from the Canaries to Portugal   Enabled European mariners to travel reliably to coastlines throughout the world.   1500-1800   23   Canaries to Portugal  
Square sails vs Triangle sails   Square sails enabled them to take advantage of a following wind (a wind from behind) but did not work well in crisswinds. The triangle lateen sails were very manuverable and could catch winds from almost every direction.   With a combination of square and lateen sails, mariners were able to use whatever winds arose.   1500-1800   23   Mediteranean  
Compass   European mariners used compasses to determine the direction they were headed.   Along with the astrolabe the compass helped mariners find their way around the world's oceans effectively.   1500-1800   23   The world's oceans  
Prince Henry   Conquered the Moroccan port of Ceuta and sponsored a sewries of voyages down the west African coast   Quickened european exploration and helped mariners to understand the world's geography.   1394-1460   23   Portugal  
Vasco da Gama   Underwent tough expedition from Lisbon to Calicut around Cape of Good Hope   Brought back pepper and cinnamon, which was very profitable. Built trading post at Calicut.   exploration (1497-1498)   23   Portugal  
Reconquista   The Muslim kingdom of Granada fell to the Spanish christian forces.   The capture of Granada influenced Colombus's to believe and spread his christian faith on the voyage.   end 1492   23   Granada, Spain  
Christopher Colombus   Proposed sailing a western route to Asia. Funded by Fernando and Isabel of spain.   On October 12 1492,Colombus found the bahamas and unintentionally called the native people "Indians."   1451-1506   23   Spain  
Ferdinand Magallen   Pursed Colombu's goal of establishing a western route to Asia.   His expedition was the first ever to circumnavigate the world.   1480-1521   23   Spain  
Columbian Exchange   The global diffusion of plants, food crops, animals, human populations, and disease pathogens that took place after voyages of exploration by Christopher Columbus and other European mariners   The Columbian Exchange created a way of speading culture throughout the world, but it also mixed diseases, plants, and animals together that were never meant to be together.   1300 C.E. - 1800 C.E.   23   Entire World  
Transoceanic Trade   Global trading system that went through across the Atlantic Ocean between the Americas, Europe, and Africa   The transoceanic trade route was the first route overseas between three main continents that each relied upon the others for resources.   1300 C.E. - 1800 C.E.   23   Atlantic Ocean  
Manila Galleons   The Spanish ships which sailed between Manila and Acapulco on trade routes.   The Manila Galleons were the Spaniards most used ships because they would trade all of their most important items on the route such as silver.   1565 C.E. - 1815 C.E.   23   Pacific Ocean  
The Seven Years' War   A global conflict in that it took place in Europe, India, the Caribbean, and North America.   The Seven Years' War had deep implications for global affairs because it set the foundation for 150 years of British imperial hegemony in the world.   1756 C.E. - 1763 C.E.   23   North America, Europe, India, the Caribbean  
British Hegemony   The British domination of world trade by taking control of small colonies and establishing an enormous empire.   The British Hegemony allowed the British to expand their territory and eventually establish the British Empire. It also gave Great Britain control over many popular colonies such as India.   1700 C.E. - 1900 C.E.   23   Europe, Africa, and Asia  
French and Indian War   The battle between the French and the British in North America over whom would have hegemony.   The French and Indian War was the main battle between Great Britain and France to see whom would control the American Colonies and have control of the North American trade routes.   1754 C.E. - 1763 C.E.   23   North America  
Ferdinand Magellan   Portuguese sailor who circumnavigated the worl under the sponsorship of Spain.   First person to ever circumnavigate the world   1519-1522   23   world wide  
Roald Amundsen   Norwegian sailor who discoverd the Northwestern passage.   By discovering the northwestern passage, new link between atlantic and pacific for trade.   16 century   23   world wide  
Sir Francis Drake   Fisrt sailor to scout the west coast of North America.   Attracted many followers who also explored the newly discovered lands.   16 century   23   North America  
Captain James Cook   Sailor who led three expeditions in the Pacific and added five new lands to the map including Australia, New Zeland, Hawaii, and others.   Helped to establish new, more accurate world maps and discovered many new lands.   1700's   23   Pacific Ocean  
Alfonso d'Alboquerque   Portuguese naval captain who led a powerful fleet throughout the Indian Ocean and took over many cities with the hopes of controling Indian Ocean trade   Established a large power in the Indian Ocean but was not able to control trade.   16 century   23   Indian ocean  
VOC   The English East India Company which made huge profits.   Made huge profits and contibuted to the early formation of global trade   16 century   23   world wide  
cicumnavigation   The act of sailing completley around the world.   Established a new idea of the world's size and significance.   n/a   23   world wide  
English and Dutch Trading Posts   Trading posts used by the English and Dutch that consisted mainly of sites in Gao, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, Cape Town, Colombo, and Batavia.   These sites used by the English and the Dutch made their trade networks lie on a greater scale giving them an edge over their competitors like the Portuguese.   The 1600's   Chapter 23   Asia, Africa  
The Trading Companies   Joint-stock companies such as the VOC, formed by English and Dutch merchants to provide and exchange trade on a large scale.   The two Companies were two emerging companies that would serve later as one of the largest and most succesful trading companies in its time. They were commited to profitable trade and were willing to wage war for the good of the company.   The 1600's   Chapter 23   Asia, Africa Europe  
Manila   A Spanish colony in the Philippines.   Served as a Bustling Spanish colony for merchants, especially the Chinese.   early 1600's-early 1700's   Chapter 23   Asia  
Conquest of Java   A conquest focusing on the Indonesian Island of Java.   A conquest with its main incentives on trade and to control Javas ports.   early 1600's   Chapter 23   Asia (Indonesiaian islands)  
English and Dutch Trading Posts   Trading posts used by the English and Dutch that consisted mainly of sites in Gao, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, Cape Town, Colombo, and Batavia.   These sites used by the English and the Dutch made their trade networks lie on a greater scale giving them an edge over their competitors like the Portuguese.   The 1600's   Chapter 23   Asia, Africa  
The Trading Companies   Joint-stock companies such as the VOC, formed by English and Dutch merchants to provide and exchange trade on a large scale.   The two Companies were two emerging companies that would serve later as one of the largest and most succesful trading companies in its time. They were commited to profitable trade and were willing to wage war for the good of the company.   The 1600's   Chapter 23   Asia, Africa Europe  
Manila   A Spanish colony in the Philippines.   Served as a Bustling Spanish colony for merchants, especially the Chinese.   Early 1600's-early 1700's   Chapter 23   Asia  
Conquest of Java   A conquest focusing on the Indonesian Island of Java.   A takeover with its main incentives on trade and to control Javas ports.   Early 1600's   Chapter 23   Asia (Indonesiaian islands)  
Siberia   An area of Russia consisting of frozen tundras and dense forests.   A hotspot for Russian explorers and merchants in a quest for to join in on the booming fur business.   Late 1500's- early 1600's   Chapter 23   Northeastern Eurasia (Russia)  
Native Peoples of Siberia   Twenty-six major ethnic groups consisting of indigenous people.   These people were extremely important for the fur-trading business as they often exchanged fur with adventurers for animal fur.   1600's   Chapter 23   Northeastern Eurasia (Russia)  
The Russian Occupation of Siberia   Siberian settlers consisting of mainly social outsiders, criminals, and POW's.   Agricultural areas started to arise and trading posts started to develop bringing many new people.   1600's- 1900's   Chapter 23   Northeastern Eurasia (Russia)  
Conquest of the Philippines   The Spanish conquest of the Philippines island in 1565 under the command of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi   Now centralized under the Spanish, it became a huge trading area and hotspot for Christianity.   Late 1500's-1600's   Chapter 23   Asia  


   





 
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