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Chapter 4 REHS

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"potable"   look good, free from turbidity, color, odor, taste and disease  
"potable water management"   the science and practice of protecting surface and ground water  
"public water system"   piped water with 15 service connections and serves 25 individuals at least 60 days of the year  
microbiological quality of water expressed in these terms   concentration, frequency or +/_ of bacteria  
who is in charge of water standards   The EPA under the SWDA  
3 additional water tests (critter type)   crypto, giardia, legionella  
Interim Standards   1975, specify's MCL  
Maximum contaminant level   maximum allowable concentration of contaminant  
surface water   open to the atmosphere  
zone of saturation   all the openings or voids are filled with water  
ground water   water in the zone of saturation  
percent of disease related to inadequate water and sanitation   80%  
snow in 1845   london water pump cholera  
gambierdiscus toxicus   tropical marine dinoflagellate that synthesis ciguatoxin  
2 waterborne protozoa   giardia and cryptosporidium  
asiatic cholera outbreaks   london in 1849 and 1853 investigated by john snow  
vibrio cholerae in 1892   koch isolated from polluted Elbe river  
multiple barriers for safe water (6)   1) source water protection 2) treatment plant processes 3) disinfectin 4) distribution 5 ) security 6) education  
one of the first biological warfare weapons   smallpox given to N.A. Indians on blankets 3 points of entry for anthrax  
plague   gram-, non motile Yersinia pestis zoonotic  
3 forms of plague   bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic  
Halogenated Hydrocarbons (examples)   PCB's, DDT, PBB's, chloroform, vinyl chloride  
4 groups of chemicals in drinking water   1. halogenated hyrocarbons and organics 2. heavy metals 3. nonmetallic inorganics 4. biological contaminants, drugs and additives  
public water system   15 connections, 25 individuals daily at least 60 days of the year  
community water system   15 connections for year-round or serves 25 year round residents]  
noncommunity system   public sysem that is not a community system and can be transient noncommunity or (TWS or NTNCWS) parks, rest stops, 25 people but not the same 25 people  
main drinking water contaminant   sewage  
most widely used bacterial indicator   coliform  
examples of disinfectants for water   fre and combined chlorien, chlorine dioxide, ozone, UV irradiation. Chlorine is the most common  
disinfectant byproduct   Trihalomethant (THM) is most common  
THM examples   chloroform, bromoform, dibromochloromethane  
Ozone   the most pwerful disinfectant but is unstable in water  
minimum requirement of free chlorine   o.2ppm as set by National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations  
factors that influence the movement of groundwater   geological formation and permeability, rainfall and infiltration and hydraulic gradient  
geomagnetics   magnetic field used to find buried metals  
electromagnetics   measures difference in conductivity (finds boundaries of contaminated plumes around landfills with leachate  
electrical resistivity   resistance with probes- identifies porosity and ground water limits  
ground-probing radar   uses radar to measure reflection from water table  
photoionization meters   finds specific volatile compounds like gasoline, methane  
microbes travle a shourt distance though (soil)   sandy loam or clay  
acidic soil   increases movement of pollutants in soil  
petroleum products tend to ____   float  
halogenated solvents tend to migrate___   downward  
removing bacteria from liquid in soil is   inversely proportional to particle size of the soil  
soil for removing viruses   fine loamy sand over course sand  
igneous rocks   formed by cooling and hardening of molton rock. Not good source of water granite, dioxite, basalt (some water)  
sedimentary   eroded rocks like sand, gravel, clay, silt, loess usually a lot of water especially sandstones, shales and limestones  
metamorphic   heat and pressure on igneous and sedimentary (small amount of water)  
karst areas   caves, channels, rapid groundwater movement easily polluted  
glacial drift   sediment that is moved by glacier ice  
porosity   amount of water that can be held by rock or soil  
effective porosity or specific yeild   percentage of total volume or mass of water that drains freely our by gravity  
specific retention   volume of water retained  
permeability or hydraulic conductivity   rate of flow of water at 60F in gallons per day through cross section of 1ft2  
transmissivity   hydraulic conductivity times saturated thickness of aquifer  
Darcy's Law   Q=KIA (Quantity of flow per time, gpd=(hyd. Conductivity)(hydraulic gradient)(cross sectinalarea)  
Groundwater Class 1   special groundwater-irreplaceable and ecologically vital  
Groundwater Class 2   current and potential sources of drinking water  
Groundwater Class 3   not considered potential sources of drinking water salt water  
standard plate count   total colonies of bac developing from measured portions (two 1ml and two .1ml) 48 hrs at 95F  
guinea-worm   most comon dracontiasisnhelminth  
odor   less than 3 on threshold odor number  
taste   not objectionalble  
turbidity   0.5 Nephelometric turbidity units and occasionaly not more than 1NTU  
color   less than 15 true color units  
temperature   less than 60F  
dug well   15-30 ft deep, not dependable  
bored well   uses an auger to go 25-60 feet, small yields, easily pollulted  
driven and jetted wells   pounded in and 50-100 feet deep  
drilled well   in general, they are better, less contaminated  
chlorine dioxide   more bowerful biocide than free cholorine but doesn't persist as long  
ozone   most powerful disinfectant but highly unstable in water and lacks persistent redisual so usually add a secondary like chlorine  
uv radiation   good biocide but no persistend residual  
coagulation-flocculation   combine small particles into aggregates as part of a process (coagulation, sedimentation, flitration)  
coagulant formation (add what?)   add chemical like alum  
The first 3 steps of Coagulation in Coagulation-Flocculation   Coagulant formation (alum), particle destabliization, interparticle collision  
   
flocculation   small particles transformed into larger pieces or floes  
seidmentation and flotation   solid-liquid gravity separation  
flotation   introduce gas bubbles into water that attach to solids to float to top  
filtration   suspended matter is removed (clay, silt, organic matter,  
mandated by the EPA surface water treatment rule   filtration- enterovirus, giardia, legionella, reduces crytosporidium resistent to disinfection  
most common type of filter   granular media filter  
slow sand filter   very effective, grain size .25-.35mm  
rapid filtration   treated water through granular media bed larger sand (.5-.7mm) PRE-TREATMENT is essential  
Pressure filters   sometimes used in rapid filtration. Water enters filters under pressure  
standard for lead   15ppb flush for several minutes a day to reduce problem  
standard for copper   1500 ppb may be naturally occuring causes of copper in water  
what and where are radionuclides   raduim, uranium, polonium, can test radon in ari. Shallow wells more likely to have these  
human caused contamination of water   nitrates, pesticides, VOC's, hazardous materials spills  
VOC's examples   solvents, cleaners, degreasers, benzene, toluene, fuel suppliers, dry cleaners, paint shops  
VOC's healh effects   CNS impairment, liver and kidney, skin, cancer  
definition of coliform bacteria   rod shaped, gram negative, non-spore forming, lactose fermenting with production of acid and gas at 35C  
E. coli   ferments lactose at 44F. Metallic green colonies on dark purple plate  
membrane filtration   sample vacuumed through a special filter that is sealed off in growing medium 44F  
ONPG-MUG   colilert and colisure 35C for 24 hours  
dissolved oxygen   the amount of oxygen available in fresh water  
BOD   amount of oxygen in water for microorganisms to decompose organic material - a measure of pollution  
BOD Test and cause   5 days- canneries, dairy plants  
when bod is high, DO is   when DO is low (less pollution), BOD is  
COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)   oxygen equivelant of what is susceptible to oxidation by strong chemical oxidant  
standard for arsenic   10ppb  
dissolved oxygen   the amount of oxygen available in fresh water  
BOD   amount of oxygen in water for microorganisms to decompose organic material - a measure of pollution  
BOD Test and cause   5 days- canneries, dairy plants  
when bod is high, DO is   when DO is low (less pollution)  
COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)   oxygen equivelant of what is susceptible to oxidation by strong chemical oxidant  
soil conditions for removal of virus and bacteria   fine loamy sand over course sand and gravel  
this water organism dies off quickly outside of host   streptococcus  
very resistant to unfavorable conditions and indicate past or present pollution   C. perfringens (intestines of humans and anumals) more resistant than escherichia and streptococci  
most dependable water well   drilled well  
best method for back flow preventor   air gap  
what causes water hardness   dissolved calcium, magnesium bicarbonates, sulfates and chlorides  
problems with hard water   pipes clog and heaters become coated with lime scale  
what fixes hard water   water softener like  
common disinfection of water   chlorine, chlorine-ammonia compounds and ozone  
hydropneumatic tank or pressure systems are commonly used for   small communities, housing developments, private homes, camps, hotels  
hydropneumatic tanks typically contain what percent of its volume as water?   10-20%  
nitrate levels   MCLG for nitrate is 10 mg/L or 10 ppm  
nitrate presence   indicates previous pollution  
can diatomaceous earth filters stand alone?   no, they need to be augmented wit chlorine  
epilimnion   top mixed zone of reservoir- high in o2 and algae  
metalimnion or thermocline   transition zone of reservoir, ox decreases, best source of water  
hypolimnion   zone of stagnation, cold, deficient in oxygen  
hydrogen sulfide in water   rotten egg smell, makes water corrozive, death at 300 ppm  
best way to remove nitrates   ion exchange is most practical. Reverse osmosis and electrodialysis are effective but expensive.  
removal of cadmium   can be removed more than 90% through iron coagulation. Reverse osmosis in not practical.  
prevent backsiphonage by (3)   vacuum breaker, air gap, backpressure units  
backpressure   pressure from nonpotable exceeds pressure from potable  
backsiphonage   pressure in public water system is less than that in non-potable due to a vacuum or reduced presure in potable  
Q=AIR   watershed runoff and reservoir design  
how should a drilled well be sealed?   cement grouting  
sodium chloride   used in water softeners  
plain sedimentation   quiescient (still) water settling using gravity to collect solids  
centrifugal pump design depends on   impeller  
sodium hypochlorite   (NaCl) can be used full strength for disinfection of water  
pressure filter and DE earty filter commonly used for   filtration of industrial water supplies an swimming pools, generally not drinking water  
"fresh polllution" indicator   free ammonia  
effectiveness of chlorine depends on   pH, temp, contact time, clarity  
copper sulfate used to   control growth of algae and protozoa  
gases found in water that encourage corrosion   carbon dioxide and h2o  
Nephelometric turbidity units   mesures amount of light scattered  
testing for residual chlorine   DPD-colormetric  
granulated activated carbon filters used for   treating water for drinks, removing taste and odor and removing organic chemicals (suspected carcinogens)  
ozone treatement levels   1.0-1.5 mg/l  
ozone treatment goals   remove color taste and odors, viruses, cysts and bacteria  
control of inorganic chemicals in drinking water   sanitary survey, source ID, determination of amount of pollutants  
trihalomethanes are created during:   prechlorination with long contact periods and sunlight langelier saturation index  
hydraulic ram is powered by   water- water flowing in pipe is used to elevate a smaller quantity of water  
centrifugal pump max water lift   15 feet  
jet pump lifts water up to   120 feet but efficient at 50 feet or less  
GAC removes tastes and odors by   adsorption  
sewage travelled over ___ feet in sandy soil   200 feet  
ideal water hardness level   50-80 mg/l  
alkalinity levels (desirable)   30-100 mh/l  


   





 
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