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Unit V B : World War One

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Pancho Villa   Led guerrillas opposed to the new Mexican government on raids into the United States  
John J. Pershing   U.S. General sent into Mexico to try to capture Pancho Villa but failed to do so  
Militarism   Build up of armed forces to intimidate other nations  
Germany sought to challenge________ dominance of the seas and so they engaged in a race to build larger and more battleships. This increased tensions between the two nations.   British  
Nationalism   Extreme pride in one’s nation  
Germany saw itself as lacking in colonies as it was a latecomer to imperialism. It wanted a _____ according to its leader Kaiser Wilhelm II.   "place in the sun”,  
Alliance System   Pledges among groups of nations to defend each other if any member was attacked  
Triple Alliance ( Central Powers )   Germany, Austria-­‐Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Italy ( until 1915 )  
Triple Entente ( Allies )   France, Russia, Britain, Italy ( after 1915 )  
Balkan Nationalism   Movement by various Slavic peoples of the Balkans who wanted independence from the Austrian-­‐Hungarian Empire. When Austria-­‐Hungary annexed Bosnia, this upset independent Serbia which also wanted Bosnia.  
Gavrilo Princip   Serbian nationalist who in Aug., 1914 assassinated Franz Ferdinand  
Franz Ferdinand   Archduke and the heir to the throne of Austria-­‐Hungary.  
What was the short term cause of WW1?   the assassination of Franz Ferdinand  
Austria-­‐Hungary blamed______ for the assassination and wanted to their Serb nationalism   Serbia  
Serbia had the support of_____ while Austria-­‐Hungary had the support of______   Russia, Germany  
What happened after Austria-­‐Hungary declared war on Serbia?   Russia mobilized its troops. Germany then declared war on Russia.  
Schlieffen Plan   Involved Germany attacking Russia first then turning to defeat France.  
Germany invaded France through_____.   neutral Belgium  
This brought______ into the war as they had pledged to defend Belgium. The German offensive was stopped and the war devolved into a long struggle   Britain  
U.S. Response to Outbreak of War =   Neutrality but Public Opinion Favored the Allies  
Propaganda   one sided information by Britain portrayed Germany as bad  
Britain and France were_____. Central Powers were_____   democracies, monarchies  
3 reasons US favored allies   Greater cultural heritage in common, Britain and France were democracies. Central Powers were monarchies, More trading with Allied countries  
U-­‐boats   German submarines. Used to disrupt trade with Britain  
Lusitania   Passenger liner sunk by U-­‐boats in May of 1915, killing 128 Americans onboard  
Sussex Pledge   Germany said they would stop unrestricted submarine warfare after Pres. Wilson protested the March 1916 sinking of another passenger liner  
______won reelection in 1916 with the pledge “He kept us out of war”.   President Wilson  
Zimmerman Telegram   Message intercepted in January 1917. Germany proposed that Mexico ally with Germany in case the U.S. entered the war. Mexico would recover lost lands in exchange for their aid. This outraged Americans.  
In_______ Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare and sank six more U.S. merchant ships. On______, Pres, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war which passed by a wide margin two days later.   February of 1917, April 2, 1917  
Conscription   ( the draft ) was authorized by Congress for the first time since the Civil War  
Selective Service   System created to carry this out through local draft boards  
African-­‐Americans served in the military in segregated units but   their experiences in France of a society without segregation inspired many to pursue civil rights in the U.S. following the war  
Women served as____, doing non-­‐combat tasks such as clerical duties and nursing   auxiliaries  
War Industries Board ( W.I.B.)   Coordinated allocation of resources and production of equipment for the war  
Committee on Public Information -­‐ ( C.P.I. )   issued propaganda to gain support for the war  
George Creel   Head of the C.P.I.  
Food Administration   Responsible for producing enough food for the war effort and getting Americans to conserve food  
Herbert Hoover   Head of the Food Administration  
Victory Gardens   Public was encouraged to grow their own food to conserve for the war  
Fuel Administration   Managed fuel supplies and encouraged conservation by citizens  
Daylight Savings Time   was instituted to save energy  
War Bonds / Liberty Bonds   How the government raised most of the money for the war  
National War Labor Board ( N.W.L.B.)   Mediated between business and labor to avoid strikes. Labor gained better wages, an 8 hour work day, and the right to organize during the war  
“Great Migration”:   African-­‐Americans moving to northern cities for wartime industrial jobs  
Women took over many jobs left behind by the men who went to war. After the war women lost these nontraditional jobs to the returning soldiers. However,   women’s contributions to the war effort helped them to gain suffrage after the war with the passage of the 19th amendment  
The war led to   anti-­‐German feelings, intolerance, and persecution of German Americans  
Espionage Act & Sedition Amendment   Passed to deal with the threat of spies and antiwar speech that might undermine the war effort  
Eugene V. Debs   Labor leader turned socialist who was arrested for speaking out against the war.  
Industrial Workers of the World ( I.W.W.) aka. “Wobblies”   Radical socialist union that opposed the war. They thought exploited workers fought on behalf of industrialist capitalists  
Schenck vs. US   Supreme Court decision that free speech could be limited during war if it posed a “clear and present danger” to the nation. Upheld the jailing of war protestors.  
How did WWI demonstrate a change in warfare.   Trenches, barbed wire, artillery, and machine guns led to extremely high casualty rates as soldiers charged over “no man’s land” between entrenched armies.  
The tank and chemical weapons such as _______were introduced as were early use of airplanes.   chlorine and mustard gas  
Doughboys"   nickname for U.S. soldiers in WWI  
John J. Pershing   Commander of the American Expeditionary Force ( A.E.F. ). He kept Americans under Amer. leadership and not be used as replacements for British and French units.  
Czar Nicholas II   of Russia was deposed (overthrown ) in a revolution in 1917  
Vladimir Lenin   Led the communist Bolsheviks that took over Russia and made peace with Germany  
Germany turned its total attention to the western front in 1918 for a final offensive. The Allies were bolstered by American reinforcements and the German offensive was repelled at   Chateau-­‐Thierry and Belleau Wood  
During the Allied counteroffensive in the summer of 1918, American troops distinguished themselves in the   Meuse-­‐Argonne offensive at St. Mihiel  
Alvin York   Received the Congressional Medal of Honor for single handedly killing 20 Germans and capturing 132 others  
Germany agreed to an_______ ( agreement to cease fighting ) on November 11, 1918. This day is now celebrated as________   armistice, Veterans Day  
14 Points (what is it)   President Wilson’s proposals to create a lasting peace following the war  
14 points (parts of it)   Self-­‐determination -­‐ nation’s borders based on ethnic identity ( 570 ) Open diplomacy -­‐ no secret treaties / alliances Free trade Freedom of the seas Reduce armies / navies League of Nations -­‐ world organization  
Wilson hoped for ____ but victorious France and Britain wanted to punish the Central Powers   a lenient peace  
Treaty of Versailles   Treaty that ended the war  
Reparations   Losers had to pay damages to the winners Failed to adopt Wilson’s proposals except for the League of Nations  
Irreconcilables”   Republicans entirely opposed to the treaty. They believed U.S. involvement in the League would violate U.S. neutrality. ( 573 ) Led by Henry Cabot Lodge  
“Reservationists”   Republicans who would approve the treaty if it was stated that the League did not require the U.S. to go to war without approval of Congress. Included Robert La Follette  
Pres. Wilson refused to compromise. The Republicans voted down the treaty as it was written and Wilson vetoed a compromise version, so   the U.S. did not sign the treaty or join the League of Nations  
The transition from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy resulted in   racial tensions as returning white soldiers competed for jobs with African-­‐Americans that had moved to northern cities. Race riots occurred  
Inflation following the war led workers to demand higher wages and resulted in many strikes. This caused   fear in the public of the possibility of a revolution as had occurred in Russian in 1919.  
“Red Scare”   Fear that communists were conspiring to take power in the U.S.  
Mitchell Palmer   Attorney General that organized raids on radical organizations and people were jailed without regard to their civil rights.  


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