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A&P Chapter 1 Test

Anatomy is from the Greek language and means to cut apart
Anatomy is the study of the internal and external structures of plants, animal and for our focus, the human body.
Microscopic anatomy (fine anatomy)is the study of structures that can only be seen and examined with a magnification aid (i.e. microscope)
Macroscopic anatomy is the study of the structures visible to the naked eye
Physiology focuses on the function and vital processes of the various structures making up the human body. (ex. muscle contractions, sense of smell, how we breathe)
Morphology is a science that is closely related to anatomy which deals with the form and structure of organisms, such as the shapes of cells
A disease is a condition in which the body fails to function normally
Pathology is the branch in medicine that studies the characteristics, cause (etiology) and effects of disease.
Idiopathic diseases are diseases where the etiology of a disease cannot be determined
Nosocomial diseases are diseases you acquire while in a medical facility.
Communicable diseases are spread in various ways, person to person, insect to person.
Contagious disease are readily transmitted from one person to another (i.e. common cold)
Epidemiology is the study of the transmission, frequency of occurrence, distribution, and control of a disease.
Endemic diseases are continually present within a specific population or region
Epidemic diseases are diseases which occur suddenly in large numbers over a specific region.
Pandemic diseases are diseases which spread country or worldwide.
Metabolism refers to chemical operations going on within our bodies
Anabolism is the process by which simpler compounds are built up and used to manufacture materials for growth, repair and reproduction.
Catabolism is the process by which complex substances are broken down into simpler substances.
Homeostasis is the state of being utilizing physiological processes that monitor and maintain a stable internal environment and equilibrium (The optimum natural state)
Signs of disease are definitive, objective, and measurable (fever, color of mole)
Vital Signs are signs vital to life (pulse, blood pressure, body temperature, and respiratory rate)
Symptoms are things perceived by the patient, more subjective and difficult to measure. (tolerance to pain)
A syndrome is a specific grouping of signs and symptoms related to a specific disease
Diagnosis is the identification of a disease determined by studying the patients signs, symptoms, history and results of diagnostic tests.
Prognosis is the prediction of the outcome of the disease.
An acute condition is a condition in which signs and symptoms have a rapid onset
A chronic condition is a condition in which signs and symptoms develop gradually over time and may go through phases of remission (signs and symptoms my disappear at times), relapse (recurrences of the disease), exacerbation (signs and symptoms “flare up” acutely), or terminal states.
Mortality is the measure of the number of deaths that can be attributed to a certain disease in a given population over a period of time.
Morbidity is the measure of disabilities and extent of illness that is caused by a specific disease
Pathogens are disease producing microorganisms
The body's natural barriers include the skin, the immune response, the inflammatory response, and allergic or hypersensitivity reactions
Vector borne diseases gain entrance to the body by being brought in by an insect or other animal
Biological vectors are transmitted insect or animal has the pathogen living inside it and when it bites you it infects your blood with the organism. (example: malaria from Anopheles mosquito)
Mechanical vector are transmitted when an insect or animal has the pathogen on its body and spreads it to you by landing on an open wound
In direct contact transmissions the pathogen comes in direct contact with an open wound
In indirect contact transmissions pathogens from one individual are transferred to another by inanimate objects. (ex. medical equipment is not sterilized before it is used on the next patient)
In Common Vehicle transmission diseases are spread by contaminated blood or blood products, IV fluid, or food.
In Airborne transmission diseases are spread through droplets that contain the pathogen
The chain of infection begins with the creation of the infection, continues with the transportation of the pathogen, and then ends with the entry into the body.