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Fund of body chap14

The Respiratory System, Chapter 14

The oral cavity refers to the mouth
Two structures located at the posterior(back) portion of the oral cavity are the palatine tonsils
The tonsils are lymph tissue
Lymph tissue is part of your immune system
The nasal cavities refer to the nose
The two meati(openings) of the nasa cavities are called nostris or external nares
the hairs found lining the nasal cavities act as screening devices
The nasal cavities are separated by the nasal septum
The nasal cavities house the sense of smell referred to as the olfactory sense
The nasal cavities are lined with mucous membranes
Mucous membranes produce mucus
The pharynx is AKA throat
The orophaynx refers to the oral cavity(mouth) and pharynx(throat)
Nasopharyngeal means pertaining to the nasal cavity(nose) and pharynx(throat)
The adenoids are located in the nasopharynx
The adenoids are lymph tissue and part of your immune system
The nasopharynx also houses two ducts that lead to the middle ears called Eustachian tubes
The function of the Eustachian tubes is to equalize pressure between the middle ear and the outside environment in order to prevent tympanorrhexis (ear drum rupture)
The larynx is AKA vocal cords or voice box
The larynx connects the pharynx(throat) with the trachea(wind pipe)
Laryngopharynx(hypopharynx) refers to the larynx(voice box or vocal cords) and pharynx(throat)
The larynx is support by pieces of cartilage
The pieces of cartilage that support the larynx are called 1.The thyroid cartilage 2.The epiglottis 3.The cricoid cartilage
The largest piece of cartilage is the thyroid cartilage AKA "Adam's apple"
The epiglottis is the "lid over the larynx"
The epiglottis is designed to open when we breathe and close when we swallow
The glottis is the space between the larynx(vocal cords, voice box)
The trachea is AKA the windpipe
the bronchi are the two main airway branches that bifurcate off the trachea(windpipe)
These two main brances are called the right primary bronchus and the left primary bronchus
On entering the lungs the primary bronchi(plural) divide to form smaller bronchi called the secondary(lobar) bronchi(plural)
The secondary or lobar bronchi(plural) continue to branch forming even smaller bronchi called tertiary(3)(segmental) bronchi
Tertiary or segmental bronchi divide into smaller brances called bronchioles(small branches)
Bronchioles finally branch into even smaller tubes called terminal bronchioles
The terminal bronchioles subdivide into microscopic branches called respiratory bronchoiles
The respiratory bronchioles further subdivide into aveolar ducts
The aveolar ducts house the aveoli in the alveolar sacs
The aveolar sacs house the aveoli(respiration takes place)
This continuous branching of the trachea is referred to as the bronchial tree
It is estimated that the average number of alveoli in a human is 30 million
Every alveolus is surrounded by capillaries
The alveoli are where respiration occurs
Respiration involves two processes: 1.External respiration-which is the exchange of gases that occurs between the lungs and the blood 2.Internal respiration which is the exchange of gases that occurs between the blood & body cells
Every cell of the body is surrounded by capillaries
The actual exchange of the respiratory gases between the lungs, blood and cells occurs by diffusion
Diffusion means the process in which particles in a fluid or gas move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
The cavity where the respiratory organs are found is the thoracic cavity
The lungs are divided into sections called lobes
The right lung has 3 lobes(RUL, RML, RLL)
The left lung has 2 lobes(LUL, LLL)
The primary bronchi(plural) are lined with small hair-like structures called cilia
The purpose of the cilia is to catch foreign particles that are inhaled during inspiration
As the cilia becomes saturated from the inhaled particles the mucous membranes that lined the respiratory tract will produce mucus
The purpose of the mucus is to trap the foreign particles
When enough mucus is produced the nervous system will trigger the cough reflex
the cough reflex gives a person two choices 1.Cough the mucus up and spit it out 2.Cough the mucus up and swallow it
A productive cough refers to a cough where sputum is produced
A non-productive cough refers to a dry cough(no sputum) such as croup(bark-like cough)
Antitussive refers to a cough suppressant
The act of coughing up mucus is called expectoration(expectorate)
The mucus expectorated is called sputum or phlegm
Normal sputum(phlegm) appears clear or white
Mucopurulent refers to mucus & pus
Hemoptysis means expectorating blood
Yellow, green or pungent sputum(phlegm) can indicate infection
C&S stands for Culture & Sensitivity
A C&S is performed to grow antigens and determine the best antibiotic to treat the infection
Two membranous layers surround each lung called pleurae(plural)
The purpose of the pleurae(plural) is to protect the lungs from the ribs
The outermost pleural layer is called the parietal pleura(singular)
The innermost pleural layer is called the visceral pleura(singular)
Between the parietal and visceral pleurae(plural) is a space called the pleural cavity(space)
The pleural cavity(space) contains pleural fluid(lubricating fluid) to prevent friction between the parietal and visceral pleurae(plural) during ventilation(breathing)
Ventilation refers to breathing
PFT stands for Pulmonary Function Tests
Incentive spirometry (IS) is a test to measure the ability to self ventilate
Tidal Volume(TV) the amount of air inhaled & exhaled during normal ventilation(breathing)
Inspiratory Reserve Volume(IRV) the volume of air that can be inhaled beyond a normal resting inspiration
Expiratory Reserve Volume(ERV) the volume of air that can be exhaled beyond a normal resting expiration
The process of moving air in and out of the lungs is called ventilation(breathing)
The two phases of ventilation are inhalation(inspiration) and exhalation(expiration)
The muscles primarily responsible for ventilation are the 1.Diaphragm 2.Internal & external intercostals
ventilation is controlled by the respiratory center located in the medulla oblongata
A ventilator refers to a device that pushes air in and out of the lungs
Intubation (intubate) is the process of inserting a tube
Intubation usually refers to an Endotracheal Tube(ET)
The instrument used to insert an Endotracheal Tube(ET) is called a laryngoscope
Ambu bag refers to a bag that is used to ventilate an apnic patient
ABGs stands for Arterial Blood Gases
oxygen saturation(SaO2) is the amount of oxygen(O2)that has combined with(saturated) hemoglobin
Percentage of carbon dioxide(PCOs)is the amount or Percentage of Carbon Dioxide(CO2) that has combined with hemoglobin
A nebulizer is a device that delivers vaporized medicine(vaporizer)
CXR stands for Chest X-Ray
NPPV stands for Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation(a respiratory Tx)
Oximetry refers to the process of measuring oxygen
Rales refers to crackling sounds heard during ausculation(listening with a stethoscope)
Ausculation means listening with a stethoscope
Rhonchi refers to wheezing
Stridor refers to a high pitched sound indicative of airway obstruction
RT(IT) stand for Respiratory Therapy(Inhalation Therapy)
C-PAP stands for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
C-PAP is a treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea(OSA)
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed