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ME lec 1


What is the "law" of constant proportions? What type of constituents does it apply to? law of constant proportions = relative proportions of conservative constituents in seawater vary little from place to place; constituents that dissolve in seawater, salinity
Surface tension is a result of _____ or sticking together of water molecules cohesion
The six major constituents of seawater make up ___% by weight of all compounds dissolved in seawater. 99.28
If seawater becomes increasingly dense as it approaches its freezing point, how is it that frozen seawater (sea ice) floats? at freezing point, freezing salts are excluded, so sea ice floats, cold dense surface water sinks
*Within what depth range is the Oxygen Minimum Zone typically found? 200-1000m
How do the concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide change with depth? O2 has low values in older/deeper water, and CO2 has mirror conc, so higher values in older water and depth
*How is global change expected to affect the OMZ? Has this already been observed? climate models predict decline in oceanic dissolved oxygen conc and expansion of OMZ, largest declines expected in extra tropical regions; have seen OMZ of tropical Atlantic core O2 values decline, observed in Peru, Chile, and other regions
*What two groups of marine organisms appear to the most sensitive to hypoxic conditions? fish & crustacean larvae
*What group of marine organisms appears to flourish under conditions of low oxygen and pH? jellyfish
What are some potential community level consequences of hypoxia in marine systems? alters physiological and metabolic rate processes, organism abundance, species composition, diversity, and size structure; can select for morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations amg some taxa, but hypoxia often cause impaired fxns
What is the relationship between dissolved carbon dioxide and seawater pH? dissolved CO2 means more acidic b/c more H+, so seawater is becoming acidified
lysocline rapid change in calcium carbonate over short pd of time, over limited depth see rapid decrease of calcium carbonate, below that there isn’t anymore (referring to sediments)
What is the Calcite Compensation Depth and how does it differ from the Aragonite Compensation Depth? CCD = depth below which rate of supply of calcite lags behind rate of solvation, so no calcite is preserved, is lower than ACD b/c aragonite is more soluble than calcite
*Why is the lysocline and CCD deeper in the Atlantic than in the Pacific? b/c deeper and colder, and deep waters are undersaturated w. calcium carbonate b/c solubility increases w. increasing pressure and salinity and decreasing temp
It has been predicted that in 50 years surface waters in the Southern and Arctic Oceans will be corrosive to ??????? aragonite
The two most important planktonic calcifiers that secrete calcite are Coccolithophores & foraminiferans
What is the “Ballast Effect” and how might it impact the biological pump as the pH of surface waters declines? decreased calcification leads to lower specific gravity of phytoplankton cells, so sinking rate is diminished; some studies suggested that calcification would increase for some species in higher CO2 world
*Why might production increase in high latitudes and decrease in low latitudes in a warmer world? restriction of nutrient mixing at low latitudes and increased water column stability and less light limitation at high altitudes
*What are the most important benthic and pelagic organisms in terms of aragonite production? reef-building corals, palnktonic pteropod and heteropod mollucscs
How is Transparent Exopolymer particle (TEP) exudation from phytoplankton expected to be altered in the future and how might this affect the biological pump? TEP is polysaccharide exuded phytoplankton; TEP very surface-active and easily coagulate amg themselves and with other particles, so accelerated aggregation and sinking of organic matter; cheaper energy
Will primary producers provide more or less food to higher trophic levels (in warmer world)? Less food b/c higher turnover, so growing on smaller pool of nutrients, less nutritious
Will marine biota sequester more or less CO2 in a warmer world? More b/c more CO2
*What are the most important benthic and pelagic organisms in terms of aragonite production? reef-building corals, planktonic pteropod and heteropod mollucscs
What areas are expected to be the first to be impacted by ocean acidification? Why? high-latitude regions and deep water areas where natural carbonate levels are lowest and closest to becoming undersaturated w. respect to carbonate; as acidification continues and carbonate saturation horizons become shallower
Under what conditions do we observe waters corrosive to aragonite on the continental shelf? seasonal upwelling facilitates movement of corrosive deep water onto N American western continental shelf
Describe how both coastal upwelling occur coastal: coriolis effect, water diverging away from equator and replaced by cold nutrient rich water from Ekman transport (moving water offshore) driven by easterly trade winds, coastal upwelling due to wind w. offshore Ekman transport water replace
equatorial upwelling equatorial: trade winds converge on the equator (intertropical convergence zone) resulting in divergence of surface waters which are replaced by deep nutrient-rich waters
The depth of the Ekman layer is influenced by local conditions and may vary between 45 and 300m
Created by: 1224450232