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Fund of Disease ch3

Infectious Diseases Chapter 3

A disease that can be transmitted from one person to another is called communicable(contageous)
Virulence(virulent) means an organism's power to overcome the defenses of it's host
Bacterial pathogens include: 1.Strep(streptococci-plural/streptococcus-singular) proliferation(growth in numbers) of streptococci can cause strep throat 2.Staph(staphylococci) proliferation of stephylococci can cause impetigo(skin infection)
Bacterial pathogens continued 3.Salmonella proliferation of salmonella can cause gastroenteritis(inflammation of the stomach & small intestines) AKA Food poisoning 4.E.Coli(escherichia coli) proliferation of E.Coli can cause UTI (urinary tract infection)and gastroenteritis
Bacterial pathogens cont' 5.GC(Gonococci) proliferation of GC can cause the STD(Sexually Transmitted Disease) Gonorrhea 6.C.diff(Clostridium Defficile) proliferation of C.diff can cause extreme diarrhea & dehydration 7.Diphtheria causes myocarditis & neuritis
Many bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotic therapy
Antibiotic means pertaining to against life(bacterial)
approximately 500 different types of bacteria have been identified living in the average human mouth
Viral pathogens include 1.HAV(Hepatitis A virus) eating. HBV(Hepatitis B virus) or HCV(Hepatitis C virus) sexually transmitted or sharing Needles 2.Influenza(flu) virus(A&B) 3.Coryza(200 different viral strains)AKA common cold 4.Varicella AKA chicken pox 5.Rubeola AKA measles
Complications of the HBV and HCV include cirrhosis of the liver(liver cells do not regenerate)
Complications of influenza is pneumonia
Complications of varicella(chicken pox) include pneumonia(inflammation of a lung) and cerebral edema(swelling of the brain)
The sequela of varicella(chicken pox) can be herpes zoster AKA shingles
Viral pathogens continued 6.Parotitis AKA mumps 7.Rubella AKA German measles 8. Pertussis AKA whooping cough(100 day cough) 9.Polio myelitis 10.HIV(Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
Complications of herpes zoster include extreme pain and scarring
Complications of rubeola (measles) is pneumonia (inflammation of a lung)
Complications of parotitis(mumps) include meningitis(inflammation of the meninges-tissue around brain & spinal cord) and bilateral orchitis (inflammation of the testes
Complications of rubella AKA German measles include congenital cataracts, deafness, heart defects and MR(Mental Retardation)
Complications of Polio myelitis is motor paralysis(inability to move)
The HIV is primarily transmitted through: A. Sexual contact (semen & vaginal secretions) B. Sharing needles (blood) C. the entry of contaminated body fluids
HIV is not tranmitted through casual contact (shaking hands, hugging, kissing on mouth)
Average time period between HIV infection and AIDS is 2 to 8 years
Dx(diagnosis) of AIDS is given when the immune system has been damaged to the point that opportunistic infections occur and/or a CD4 T lympocyte count <200
Opportunistic infections assoicated with AIDS include: 1.TB(turburclosus) 2.PCP(Pneumocystis (Carinii) Pneumonia 3.CA(Candida Albicans) 4.CMV(CytoMegalo Virus/can cause blindness) 5.KS(Kaposi's Sarcoma/skin cancer)
Blood tests to detect the HIV antibodies in the blood include: 1.ELISA 2.Western blot
Tx(treatment) for the HIV and AIDS includes HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy)
Many viral infections do not provide a lasting immunity such as influenza(flu) or coryza(common cold)
Antibodies have no affect against viral infections
It IS APPROPRIATE to prescribe an antibiotic for a viral infection when the patient 1.Is immunocompromised(weakened immune system) (child, elderly, AIDS, Chemotherapy) 2.Is afflicted with a chronic(recurring) disease (to protect patient against a Secondary bacterial infection)
Infestation means to live in or on as a parasite
A parasite is an organism that benefits at the expense of the host
Helminths (worm infestations)(parasites) include 1.Roundworms 2.Pinworms 3.Tapeworms
Dx(diagnosis) of helminths is confirmed with an O&P (ova(eggs)& parasite) test
Dermatophytosis refers to an integumentary(skin, hair, nails) fungal infection
Dermatohytosis includes 1.Tinea(fungus) corporis (ringworm) 2.Tinea pedis (athlete's foot) 3.Tinea cruris (jock itch/CRoch) 4.Tinea capitis(scalp fungus) 5.Tinea unguium(nail fungus)
Tx for dermatophytosis includes antifunal medications
Micro-organisms that are not pathogenic are called normal flora
E.Coli(Escherichia) in the large bowel produce vitamin K
Many viruses are harmless to humans
Fungi(plural)(yeast) are needed to make bread, beer, cheese
The most effect way to prevent the transmission of pathogens is proper hand washing
The number of new cases of a disease in a population is called incidence
The number of existing cases of a disease is called prevalence
A disease that always occurs at low levels in a population is called an endemic
A disease that occurs at high levels in a population is called an epidemic
An epidemic that spreads over large areas worldwide is called a pandemic
A disease that suddenly occurs in unexpected numbers in a limited area and then subsides is called an outbreak
The separation of persons who may or may not be infected from healthy people until the period of infectious risk is passed is called quarantine
CDC(P)stands for the Center for Disease Control Prevention
The incidence of obesity, cancer, heart disease, and low immune response is associated with sleep deprivation
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed