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Photovoltaics

QuestionAnswer
___ is a solar energy technology that uses the unique properties of certain semi-conductors to directly convert solar radiation into electricity Photovoltaics
The Vertical angle between horizontal and the array surrface Array Tilt Angle
The range of all types of electromagnetic radiation, based on wavelength Electromagnetic Spectrum
A representation of the relative thickness of atmosphere that solar radiation must pass through to reach a point on earths surface Air Mass (AM)
The Power of solar radiation per unit area Solar IRRADIANCE
A plane by a due north-south longitude line through a location on earth and projected out into space Meridian
Earth's orbital position when solar declination is zero Equinox
A sensor that measures only direct solar radiation in the field of view of the solar disk Pyrheliometer
___ is solar energy technology that uses unique properties of certain semiconductors to directly convert solar radiation into electricity. Photovoltaics
A solar energy collector that absorbs solar energy on a flat surface without concentrating it, & can utilize solar radiation that is reflected or scattered by clouds and other surfaces. Flat- Plate Collector
A buisness that designs builds and installs complete PV systems for particular applications by matching components from various manufacturers Integrator
A piece of equipment that consumes electricity Load
Maximum annual solar energy gain on a fixed surface is achieved by abilities to the ___ Lattitude
___ generation is a system in which many smaller power generating system create electrical power near the point of consumption Distributed
___ is credited with discovering the power efect in 1839. Edmund Becquerel
__-__ systems are the fastest grounding statement of the PV systems market. Utility- Interactive
Solar__ is the angle between the equatorial plane and the rays of the sun Declination
A ___ is a sensor that measures only direct solar radiation in the field of view of the solar disk. Pyrheliometer
Solar thermal energy systems connect __ into heat energy Solar Radiation
__ is the energy that expands outward from a source in the form of waves or particles. Radiation
Solar __ is the intensity of solar power Irradiance
__ is the solar energy that reaches earths surface over the course of a day. Insolation
The 2 major types of radiation reaches the ground are direct and ___ radiation Diffuse
The __ law is a physical law that states that the ammount of radiation is proportional to the inverse of the square of the distance from the source. Inverse Square Law
___ is also known as top-of-atmosphere (TOA) Radiation Extraterrestrial
Makes a system smaller and less expensive Energy Conservation
Energy loss due to shading on a thermal panel Proportionate
Energy loss due to shading on a pv panel Disproportionate
Changes DC to AC Inverter
Utility Interactive PV system simplest and least expensive to produce
Uses Hydrogen and Oxygen to produce DC electricity Fuel Cell
Single device using photons to produce DC power Module
Stand alone system with no batteries and no controller Direct Coupled
All loads in a typical home AC Loads
Produce electricity from the flow and pressure of water ( A Dam) Micro Hydroelectric Turbine
Regulates battert charging protecting the battery from over-charging and over- discharging Charge Controller
Multiple device connected together in a series or parallel which use photons to produce DC Power Array
Continually adjusts the load under changing temperature and irradiance for ___ MPPT
Combusts fossil fuels to turn a crankshaft which turns a generator to produce electricity Engine Generator
Batteries, Fly Wheels, Super Capaciter 3 storage devices
Maximum votage for a PV device under infinate load( No Current output) Open Circuit Current
The highest efficiency for a module at a given irradiance and temperature Max Power Point
Temperature affects what? Affects a modules current
__ Prevents reversed biased flow Bypass Diode
Alike Current Output Series connected modules
Maximum current for a PV device under no load (No voltage output) Short Circuit Current
When connecting 2 or more series together Parallel Connected modules
What are PV cells made of? Semi-conductors usually Silicon
Sollar Irradiance affects what in a module affects Current
Open circuit Voltage and short circuit current Relationship on an I-V Curve
__ Can fix stratification and Sulfation Equalizing Charge
Fast charge about80- 90 percent capacity Bulk Charge
Decomposition of water into Hydrogen and oxygen Gassing
How long a system can run on batteries without further charging ( Usually in days) Autonomy
(Trickle) it keeps battery at 100 percent capacity Float charge
Conducting Medium which transfers ions between battery cell plates Electrolytes
Traction Best VP Battery
SLI ( Automotive) Worst PV Battery
Percent discharge without hurting a battery ( 80% in deep cycle traction batteries) Allowable depth of discharge
The energy storage potential of a battery expressed in Ampere Hours (AH) Capacity
Slow Charge (1-3) hours of about 10%- 15% capacity Absorbtion Charge
Percentage of withdrawn energy in a battery compared to fully charged Depth of Discharge
Ventilation of Hydrogen Most important feature of a battery enclosure
Lowers the energy for that charge cycle Fast Discharge
CC gives system information through LEDs and/or digital display Status Information
what to locate the charge controller next to if the temp. compensation is in the controller Battery Bank
CC protects system or loads from high current or bad wiring. Circuit Protection
CC gives system information through LEDs and/or digital display Status Information
what to locate the charge controller next to if the temp. compensation is in the controller Battery Bank
CC protects system or loads from high current or bad wiring. Circuit Protection
The battery voltage levels at which a cc performs regulation or switching to the limit the charge or loads Charge controller set points
Changes resistance or input voltage of the array for a range of conditions to get MPP MPPT Charge Controller
CC interupts or limits the current flow to the battery Over charge protection
Keeps a battery fully charged when cold and not overcharged when hot Temperature compensation
Operation in parallel with grid Utility interactive inverter
CC activates or disconnects loads based on set conditions Advanced load control
sophisticated feature does an AC module have that a charge controller has MPPT
Changes resistance or input voltage of the array for a range of conditions to get MPP MPPT Charge Controller
CC disconnects the load when battery is at low voltage Over Discharge Protection
Operation in parallel with grid Utility interactive inverter
sophisticated feature does an AC module have that a charge controller has MPPT
Connect to batteries, independant of array and grid Stand alone Inverter
90%- 95% Iteractive inverter efficiency rating
interactive or stand alone mode ( not at the same time) Bimodal inverter
75%- 90% Stand alone inverter efficiency rating
Wave form required for AC loads Sine Wave
Replaces DC junction box, less components- easier design and install, interactive only. could cost more.. AC module Inverter
t700 w for small residential to over 500 kw for a large commercial and utility Power ranges for interactive inverters
__ Volts is the Max output-circuit voltage for 1 and 2 family homes? 600 Volts
___ ___ __ is used to calculate max pv output voltage per NEC? Temperature Correction Factor
___% is used to determine maximum pv circuit current 125% (1.25)
What 2 places can you look for temperature correction factors when calculating open circuit voltage from an array? Module manufacturer specifications or NEC 690.7
For battery systems max inverter current can exceed nominal ratings under what condition? When the highest input current is matched with the lowest inverter orerating voltage.
What system do we use to give wire (conductor) size? American Wire Guage (AWG).. larger numbers is smaller wire (Vice Versa)
What is Ampacity? The current a wire can carry without exceeding it's temp. rating (ability)(Ampacity is affected by temp, current, and AWG)
What is derating? Reduces a wires rated ability (ampacity)
What does temperature do to a wires ampacity? Temp. reduces (derates) a wires rated ability (ampacity)
What should be done when there are more than 3 wires in a conduit longer than 24 inches? Further reduce (derate) the wires rated aility (ampacity)
What is an acceptable voltage drop? 3% (not required)
What 3 prp[erties define wire insulation? Temp, Enviorment, & Location
What type of wire is used for battery connections? Finely stranded for flexibility.
What current carrying connection does not need to be made within a junction box? Module to Module connections
What is a pv combiner box used for? a parallel connection point for 2 or more array circuits.
What does a Blocking Diode do? Prevents reversed flow from batteries to the array.
What type of conduit should be used for DC when inside a building? Metal Conduit (EMT, RMC, IMC)
What over current devices are used in PV? Fuses and Circuit Breakers
What over current device rating is required for PV circuits? 125% (1.25)
When can a Back-Fed circuit breaker be used for a given device? Any device marked as suitable (rated) Any device not marked Line or Load (NEC 690.10 E)
What device can be used for a disconnect? A switch or a circuit breaker.
What should you be aware of when switching off an AC disconnect? The inverter will be off, but the rest of the DC side could still be energized
Where should you locate the AC disconnect for an interactive PV system? Near the main utility panel and service disconnect.
What does Grounding do? To provide a path for a fault currents to protect people and equipment.
What is a Grounding Electrode? A conductive rod, plate or wire burried in the ground for grounding.
What parts of a PV system are typically grounded? AC, DC & Array
What is a ground fault? An undesireable condition of current flowing through the grounding conductors.
What device protects PV arrays from ground fault? Ground Fault Detect & Interrupt (GFDI)
What types of connectors are used to ground an ,array? Stainless steel connector, a copper plated lug screw on a bare copper wire.
When do you know not have enough to ground an arraycircuit( Source of Output)? under certain conditions as specified in the (NEC 690.35)
What part of the world typically does not ground array circuits ( source & output)? Europe
What safety device can be installed to protect PV systems? Lightning protection & Surge Arrestors.
PV battery system requirements are found in which code? NEC 690
Created by: mjg7135 on 2012-08-10



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