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Final Exam

Pathophysiology

QuestionAnswer
What would be the most likely cause of an iatrogenic disease? an unwanted effect of a prescribed drug
The best definition of the term prognosis is the _______ predicted outcome of likelihood of recovery from a specific disease
What is considered a systemic sign of disease? fever
Etiology is defined as the study of the what? cause of a disease
Hypertrophy of the heart would be related to what? increase in the size of the individual cells
A tissue in which the cells vary in size and shap;e and show increased mitotic figures would be called what? dysplasia
When a group of cells in the body dies, the cange is called ______. necrosis
Lack of exercise during an illness may cause skeletal muscle to undergo ____. atrophy
The inflammatory process is caused by _____. any tissue injury
Chemical mediators released during the inflammatory response include histamine and prostaglandins
Which of the following result directly from the release fo chemical mediators following a moderate burn injury Pain, Increased capillary permeability
Which of the following is an attempt to localize and c ontain the foreign material during an inflammatory response Fibrinogen
Edema or tissue swelling associated with inflammation results directly form Increased fluid and protein in the interstitial compartment
The process of phagocytosis involves the ingestion of foreign material of cell debris by leukocytes
Sytemic effects of sever inflammation include fatigue, anorexia, and mild fever
Replacement of damaged tissue by similiar cells is termed regeneration
Scar tissue consists primarily of Collagen fibers
patients taking glucocorticoids for long periods of time are likely to develop all of the following except _____ Releif of fever
A burn area in which the e[idermis and part of the dermis is destroyed is classified as deep partial-thickness
A woman has burns on the anterior sufrace fo the right arm, chest, and right let, The percentage of body surface area burned is approximately 22.5%
a large burn area predisposes to decreased blood pressure because fluid and protein shift out of the vascular compartment
Neutrophils are primarily phagocytic cells
Which cells are required to process and present antigens form foreign material as the intial step inthe immune response Macrphages
Humoral immunity is mediated by ______ B lymphocityes
When an allergen binds with IgE antibodies on mast cells, resulting in release of chemical mediators, this reaction is called Typ I hypersensitvity
The role of memory cells is to support the immune response by recognizing certain antigens
Which statement applies to contact dermatitis a type IV reaction occures ina reas of direct contact with the causative substance
An autoimmune disease means Failure of the immune system to distinguish self from nonself
Systemic lupus erythemoatosus is caused by immune complex depostis of antinuclear antibodies
Bacteria that form a cluster of spheres are called staphylococci
An anaerobe thribes and reprodeuces best in the absence of oxygen
The structure of a virus includes a PROTEIN COAT AND RNA rna
Which of the folloowing is a charaterisitc of rickettsia Very small gram negative intercellular microbe
The nosocomial infection means Infection acquired in a hospital of medical facitlity
The incubation period refers to the time peeriod between entry of the pathogen into the body and the first signs of infecious disease
A vaccine contains Attenuated (weakened) or dead pathogenes or their toxins
Culture and sensitivity tests are used to identify the cuasative microbe and the effective antimicrobial agen for it
The process of carciogensis usually begins witgh an irreversibel change in cell DNA
The most critical adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy include throbocytopenia and leukopenia
The spread of malignant cells through blood and lympyh to distant sites is termed metastasis
Which of the following cells in the gastric muscosa produce intrinsic factor and hydrocholoric acid Parietal cells
Which of the floowing is the primary site for absorption of nutrients ileum
which of the following iscontained in pancreatic exocrine secretions bicarbonate ion
Which of the following processes is likely to occure in the body immediately after ameal glycogenesis
Achalasia is best define as lack of a nerve plexus to relax the lower esphageal sphincter
Oral candidiasis is considred to be an opprtunistic fungal infection of the mouth
Congential pyloric stenosis involves hypertrophy and hyperplasia of smooth muscle in the pylorus
commons signs of acute gastritis include epigastic tenderness and vomiting
The pathophysiology of chronic gastritis includes atrophy of the gastic mucosa with decreased secretions
Prolonged or sever stress may predispose to peptic ulcer because of reduced blood flow to the gastic wall and mucous glands
The pathophysiology of peptic ulcer diesease may involve any of the following except increased stimulation of mucus-producing glands
Predisposng factors to choleithiasis include increased billirubin or cholesterol concentratiuon in the bile
Which of the following applies to hepatitis a IONFECTION IT IS TRANSMITTED BYH TH E ORAL-FECAL ROUT
The most common type of hepatitis transmitte by blood transfusion is HCV
Elevated serum levels AST and ALT during the preicteric stage of hepatitis result form necrosis of liver cells
Acute pancreatis causes massive inflammation and necrosis because of activation and spread of preteolytic enzyems
Esphageal varices are caused primariloy by Portal hypertension
Steatorrhea is best described as bulky, fatty turd
The typical changes occuring with Crohn's disease include infalmed area of the wall of the ileum alternatingf with thick fibrotic normal areas
An open or compound fracture occures when the skin and soft tissue is exposed at the fracture site
A Colles' fracture results when the distal radius is broken
New bone is produced by osteoblasts
AWhich of the following is correct about Duchenne's musculat dystrophy Difficly clinging stair of standin up at 2-3 years of age
All of the following predispose to osteoproris except estrogen replacement therapy
Rheumatoid arthritis is considered to be a/an systemic inflammatory disorder due to an autoimmue reaction
An attack of gout is precipitated by a sudden increase in serum uric acid levels
In ankylosing spondylitis, progressive inlammation begins at the sacroiliac joints and progresses up the spine
A myelomenigocele is described as herniation of the meinigers, DFS, and spinal cord or nerves through the vertebral defect
Generalzied seizures are charaterized by the uncontrolled discharge of neurons in both hemishperes
The clonic stage of a seizure consists of Alternating contractions and relaxation of skeletal muscles
Which statement does not apply to the patho of multiple sclerosis Progressive random degeneration of peripheral nerves
The patho changes in parkinson disease are best described as Degeneration of the basal nuclei with a defiecit of dopamine
common early manifestations of parkinson disease include tremors at rest in the hands and difficulty initiating voluntary movements
With amyotrophic lateral sclerosis there is a progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons
which of the following statements does not apply to myashenia gravis dementia develops in the later stage
huntingtons disease presents with choriform movements in the upper body and decreased ability to concentrate
with alzheimers disease characteristic changs in the brain include cortical atrophy with plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, impairing conduction
the function of baroreceptors is to notify the cardiovascular control center of changes in systemic blood pressure
the term preload refers to the volume of vennous return
predisposing factors to thrombus formation in the circulation include damaged blood vessel walls, immobility, prosthetic valves
the basic patho of myocardial infarction is best described as total obstruction of a coronary artery causes myocardial necrosis
a reduced number of erythrocytes in the blood would result in decreased hematocrit
a deficit of all types of blood cells is referred to as pancytopenia
vitamin k is required by the liver to synthesize prothrombin
individuals with type o blood are considered to be universal donors because their blood lacks a and b antigens
compensation mechanisms for individuals with anemia include tachycardia
pernicious anemia is treated with injections fo vitamin b12 because the ingested vitamin could not be absorbed into the blood
the basic abnormality in thalassemia us failure to synthesize either the alpha or beta chains in the hemoglobn molecule
which anemia is considered to result from a malabsorption problem penicious anemia
common early signs of aplastic anemia include excessive bleeding and recurrent infections
in pernicious anemia antibodies form to intrinsic factor or parietal cells
in cases of polycythemia vera blood pressure is elevated primarily because of increased numbers of circulating blood cells
petechiae and purpura are common signs of increased bleeding tendencies
which statement applies to the disorder hemophilia A hematomas and hemarthrosis are common
which of the following occur when disseminated intravascular coagulation develps multiple thrombi and deficit of clotting factors
substances classified as anitcoagulants include heparin, streptokinase
which of the following is typical of hodgkins disease initial tumor is single , painless, enlarged lymph node , often cervical
nonhodgkins lynphoma differs form hodgkins usually presents as multiple, scattered, enlarged and painless lymph nodes
multiple myeloma is a malignant tumor involving plasma cells
multiple opportunisic infections develop with acute leukemia primarily becauseof many nonfynctional immature leukocytes
excessive bleeding is common with acute leukemia because of decreased platelets
the maximum volume of air a person can exhale after a maximum inspiration is called the vital capacity
normally the central chemoreceptors are most sensitive to elevated carbon dioxide levels
the term hemoptysis bright red streaks, of blood in frothy sputum
typical s/s of epiglottis includes sudden fever, sore throat , and drooling saliva
severe hypoxia develops with pneumonia because oxygen diffusion is impaired by the congestion
legionnaires disease is caused by a gram negative bacterium
select the statement related to tuberculosis the microbe is an acid fast bacillus resisitant to many disenfectants
the basis patho of cysic fibrosis is considered to be an abnormality of the exocrine glands
histoplasmosis is caused by a fungus
during as acute asthma attack respiratory obstruciton occurs due to edema of the mucosa, increased secretions of thick, tenacious mucus
destruction of alveolar walls and septa is typical of emphysema
chronic bronchitis is cause by chronic irritation, inflammation, and infection of the larger airways
the common source of pulmnary embolus is thrombus formation if the femoral veins
flail chest occurs when several ribs are fractured at two sites
psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder resulting from incresased mitois and shedding of epithelium
which of the following statements regarding acute necrotizing fascitis is true infection rapidly causes extensive tissue necrosis and toxic shock
the itching associated with scabies results from the mites burrowing into the epidermis
which of the following skin lesions are usually caused by staphylococcus aureus furuncles, cellulitis, and impetigo
the charecterisitcs lesions of herpes zoster includes painful vesicles along a dermatome or cranial nerve pathway
infant repiratory destress syndrome results from insufficient surfactant production
thank you theresa love ya bunches,
i printed these all out and they are great (blank)
Created by: theresareed on 2004-11-08



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