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pharm final cardio

What is digoxin/lanoxin used for? Congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation/flutter
What are signs of digoxin/lanoxin toxicity? N/V/D, slow heart rate, arrhythmias, halo vision, dizzy
What is digitalization? Giving loading doses to get the drug level up quickly
What are the goals of antihypertensive therapy? -Maintain normal BP -Maintain or increase adequate blood flow -minimize side effect -permit long term use w/o developing tolerance
What is orthostatic hypotension? Drop in BP with position changes
What are signs of orthostatic hypotension? Dizzy, lightheaded, possible fainting
What do calcium channel blockers do? Block or slow calcium movement into the smooth muscle cell of the blood vessel or the cardiac muscle cell which causes vasodilation which cause the BP to lower
What are calcium channel blockers used for? Used as antihypertensive agents, antianginal agents, and antiarrhythmia agents
Name a calcium channel blocker drug amlodipine(Norvasc)
what are ACE inhibitors used for? antihypertensive agents
How does an ACE inhibitor work? blocks the angitensin converting enzyme which decreases the production of angiotensin II which cause vasodilation which lowers BP
Name an ACE inhibitor drug lisinopril( Zestril, Prinivil)
What are beta blockers used for? Antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic
How does a beta blocker work? block beta receptor stimulation causing vasodilation which lowers BP. They also decrease HR, decrease force of contraction and promote bronchoconstriction
When are Beta blockers contrindicated? patients with bradycardia, asthma, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis
Examples of Beta blocker drugs? atenolol(Tenormin), propranolol (Inderal), toprolol (Toprol)
What is Angiotensin II receptor inhibitor used for? Antihypertensive agent
How does Angiontensin II receptor inhibitor work? Blocks the action of angiotensin II causing vasodilation which lowers BP
What is a drug example of Angiotensin II receptor inhibitor? valsartan (Diovan)
What do diuretics do? They help to remove excess sodium and water from the body
What is a major side effect of Diuretics? hypokalemia(low blood potassium)
What are patient teachings for patients taking diuretics? Daily weights, low salt diet, high potassium foods
Thiazide diuretics hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)
Loop diuretics furosemide (Lasix)
What do anticoagulants do? Slow down blood clotting
What are anticoagulants used for? blood clots, heart valves, and joint replacements
What are side effects of anticoagulants? easy bruising, epistaxis(bloody nose), bleeding gums
Drug example of anticoagulant warfarin(Coumadin), heparin
How do antiplatelet/platelet aggregation inhibitors work? prevent platelet aggregation (clumping together) which prevents blood clot formation
What are antiplatelet/platelet aggregation inhibitors used for? Used after heart/blood vessel surgery, stent placement, joint replacement
Example of antiplatelet/platelet aggregation inhibitors clopidogrel
What are antianginals used for? To treat angina pectoris from decreased blood flow to cardiac muscle
What is the DOC for antianginals? nitroglycerin
What are side effects of antianginals? headache, flushing, drop in BP
What should you teach your patient about storing SL NTG? carry it on you at all times, keep track of expiration date, do not open until ready to use them, keep in the glass container
How do antihyperlipidemics work? Decrease cholesterol and triglyceride levels
What should be checked regularly while taking antihyperlipidemics? This drug works in the liver and can cause liver damage so liver enzymes should be checked
example of antihyperlipidemic atorvastain( Lipitor) simvastatin (Zocor)
How doe antiarrhythmics work? Works on the electrical conduction system of the heart, used to treat irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias)
Created by: lecopple1