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Heredity The passing down of traits from parents to offspring.
Allele The differnent forms a gene may have for a trait. Dominant or recessive. B or b
Genetics The study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles.
Dominant The form of a trait that appears to dominate or mask anouther form of the same trait. B, T, P.
Recessive The form of a trait that seems to disappear in a population but can reappear depending on the way the alleles combine. Hidden by dominant allele. b, t, p.
Punnett Square Tool used to predict traits. Shows you ways which alleles combine. Dominant and recessive represented with letters.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism for a specific trait. Always written in letters. BB, Bb, bb.
Homozygous An organism with 2 alleles for a trait that are exactly the same. BB, tt.
Heterozygous An organism that has 2 different alleles for a trait. Tt, Bb.
Phenotype Physical trait that shows as a result of a particuar genotype. Brown hair, blue eyes.
Pure Recessive An organism that has 2 recessive alleles for a particular trait. Same as homozygous recessive. tt, bb.
Pure Dominant An organism that has 2 dominant alleles for a particular trait. Same as homozygous dominant. TT, BB.
Multiple Alleles When more than 2 alleles control a trait. Blood types.
Polygenic Inheritance Occurs when a group of gene pairs act together to produce a single trait. Height, shades of blue eyes, skin color.
X and Y Chromosomes XX = female / XY = male
Incomplete Dominance The production of a phenotype that is intermediate to those of the 2 homozygous parents. Both alleles are equal in strength. 3 phenotypes for each genotype. Curly, wavy, straight hair/long, medium, short nose.
Universal Donor Type O. Anyone can recieve Type O blood.
Universal Recipient Type AB. Anyone with Type AB blood can recieve any type of blood.
Purebred Both genes are the same. Homozygous. FF, bb, TT.
Hybrid Carry 2 types of genes. Heterozygous. Bb, Tt.
Sickle-cell Anemia Recessive Genetic Disorder. Red blood cells are the wrong shape. Inherited when both parents carry affected allele.
Cystic Fibrosis Recessive Genetic Disorder. Thick mucus buildup. Inherited when both parents are carriers.
Sex-Linked Disorder/X-Linked Disorder Inherited an allele on the X chromosome that is affected with disorder. Colorblindness, Hemophilia.
Colorblindness Sex-Linked Disorder. Prevents someone from seeing red and green. More common in males-only have 1 X chromosome (no backup). X^c Y / X^c X
Recessive Genetic Disorder A gene under goes a mutation that results in an unwanted trait. Must inherit 2 affected alleles. Shows dominance. Bb, BB, bb.
Hemophilia Sex-Linked Disorder. Blood does not clot properly. X^h Y / X X^h
Carrier Carries a disorder but is not affected by it. Dominant allele overpowers. Can pass disorder on to offspring.
Created by: 100003681347204