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Chemistry Chapter 4

Chemistry Chapter 4 Review

TermsMeaning
Ion An electrially charged atom or groups of atoms.
Cation A positively charged ion.
Anion A negatively charged ion.
Ionization Energy The energy required to remove one electron from a single atom in the gaseous state.
Electron Affinity The energy released on adding an electron to a single atom in the gaseous state.
Ionic Bond The electrical attraction between ions of the oppostie charge in a crystal.
Ionic Solid A crystalline solid held together by ionic bonds.
Ionic Compund A compund that contains ionic bonds: two or more ions into a compound.
Octet Rule Main group elements tend to undergo reactions that leave them with 8 valence electrons
Electron-Dot Symbols An atomic symbol with dots placed around it to indicate the number of valence electrons.
Polyatomic Ion An ion that is composed of more then one atom.
Formula Unit The formula that identifies the smallest neutral unit of an ionic compound.
Atoms are electrically neutral because: they contain equal amounts of protons and electrons.
Low charge what type of ion: Cation
High charge is what type of ion Anion
When it comes to electron affinity the noble gases are always what type of charge Zero
High electron affinity = what type of ion Anion
Low electron affinity = what type of ion Cation
What group in the periodic table is most likely to give up/lose and e- Alkali Metals
What group in the periodic table is most likely to gain an e- Halogens
What group on the periodic table do nothing Noble Gases
Ions = ELECTRICITY
Ionic compounds can only dissolve in water if: it can overcome the forces that are holding it together.
Ionic compounds are/are not malluable? ARE NOT
tell the charges of groups 1,2,3,5,6, and 7 on the periodic table. (group 1: +1)(group 2: +2)(group 3:+3)(group 5:-3)(group 6:-2)(group 7: -1)
NAMING IONS>>>> READY? YES
for cations in groups 1,2, and 3 how are they named? they are named by identifying the metal first and then following it with the word "ion"
What would the name be for this example? (K+) Potassium Ion
Rules for transition metals in the OLD system: the smaller charge ends in -ous; larger charge ends in -ic
Example of a transistion metal in the OLD: (Cr2+) and (Cr3+) Cromious Ion; Cromic Ion
Rules for transition metals in the NEW system: contain roman numerals; avoids the use of latin
Example of a transition metal in the NEW: (Cr2+)(Cr3+) Chromium(II) Ion; Chromium (III) Ion
Anions are made by replacing what ending at the end of an element -ide followed by the word ion.
Example of Anion naming: (Flourine) Flouride Ion
COMMON NAMES OF ANIONS:<<READY YES
Bromine Br-; Bromide Ion
Chlorine Cl-; Chloride Ion
Flourine F-; Flouride Ion
Iodine I-; Iodide Ion
Oxygen O(2-); Oxide Ion
Sulfur S(2-); Sulfide Ion
SOME COMMON POLYATOMIC IONS<<< KNOW THEM<< READY? YES
Hydronium Ion H(3)O(+)
Ammonium Ion NH(4)(+)
Acetate Ion CH(3)CO(2)(-)
Carbonate Ion CO(3)(2-)
Hydrogen Carbonate HCO(3)(-)
Dichromate Ion Cr(2)O(7)(2-)
Cyanide Ion CN(-)
Hydroxide Ion OH(-)
Hypochlorite Ion OCl(-)
Nitrate Ion NO(3)(-)
Nirtite Ion NO(2)(-)
Permanganate Ion MnO(4)(-)
Phosphate Ion PO(4)(3-)
Hydrogen Phosphate Ion HPO(4)(2-)
Dihydrogen Phosphate Ion H(2)PO(4)(-)
Sulfate Ion SO(4)(2-)
Hydrogen Sulfate Ion HSO(4)(-)
Sulfite Ion SO(3)(2-)
Created by: ebruenin on 2007-10-01



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