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S2 Science Exam


Levels of organization (put in order from smallest to largest) Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere
What is a food chain A hierarchy of organisms, what eats what
Name the roles in a food chain with examples for each Producer (flower) , primary consumer (caterpillar), secondary consumer (bird) , tertiary consumer (cat) , scavenger (vulture), decomposer (mushrooms)
What is a food web? complex network of many food chains that shows the flow energy
Name the levels of an energy pyramid from largest to smallest Producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers…. apex predator
What are the levels of the food chain called? Trophic levels
What is the#1 rule in an energy pyramid? only 10 % of energy is available to next level and other 90 % goes to living, getting food, reproducing
What is the biosphere? Part of earth where all organisms exist
What are the 4 parts of biosphere? Ecosphere (surface of earth and has all ecosystems), Lithosphere (below earth’s surface), hydrosphere (all water not in lithosphere/atmosphere), Atmosphere (area of gases that surround planet)
Habitat the type of environment in which an organism lives
Define Ecological Niche place or function of organism in its ecosystem
What are the 5 needs of an organism? Air, Water, Food, Shelter, Space
Symbiosis long term relationship between two organisms
list 3 types of symbiosis parasitism, mutualism, commensalism
What is Parasitism? one organism benefits while the other is harmed
2 types of parasitism? endoparasitism (work inside the body) and ectoparasitism (work outside body)
Brood parasitism species that lay their eggs in the nest of another
List the 4 types Mutualism trophic, cleaning symbiosis, defense, dispersive
What is trophic mutualism? both help feed each other
What is cleaning symbiosis? one species gets food and shelter, other has parasites removed
What is defense mutualism? Give example one species protects the other and benefits (ex) ant protects acacia tree, eats sugar of its leaves
What is dispersive mutualism? Give ex. One species gets food for moving pollen off another (ex) bees and flowers
What is Commensalism? Give an example One species benefits while the isn’t affected or harmed (ex) epiphytes, which are plants that grow on other plants
Co-evolution when species influence each others evolution
What are three animal strategies for eating plants? special teeth and mouth, 4 chambered stomach, being able to take in plant toxins
What is the first step of the nitrogen cycle? Nitrogen (N2) from air falls to ground with rain and gets soaked up in soil, where it can meet 4 types of bacteria
What process does Bacteria 1 do in the nitrogen cycle? Explain. Nitrogen fixation; it combines the nitrogen with hydrogen to make the compound ammonia (NH3)
What process does Bacteria 2 do in the nitrogen cycle? Explain. Nitrification; it combines ammonia with oxygen to make nitrate (NO3)
What are 2 reasons why nitrites important? plants can safely absorb and use to build proteins + then animals get them when they eat plants
What are 2 ways nitrogen is released from organisms? when animals eat plants and release in feces + things die and nitrogen released into ground again
What process does Bacteria 3 do in the nitrogen cycle? Explain Ammonification; It changes the nitrites (NO3) to ammonia (NH3)
What process does Bacteria 4 do in the nitrogen cycle? Explain. Denitrification; it takes the oxygen away from from NO3 and leftover nitrogen returns to air in N2 form
What is another way nitrogen is released? dead bodies in ground go in fossil fuels → fuels burned releases nitrogen in air
What do humans do to the nitrogen cycle? How can we help? humans burn fossil fuels = too much nitrogen in air. Can help by using renewable energy.
List the 3 main stages of the water cycle condensation, precipitation, evaporation
What happens in condensation? gaseous water condenses into clouds + water molecules collect in clouds
What happens in precipitation? water molecules in clouds get big enough to fall (rain) and returns to earth
What is infiltration? What does it help do? when water soaks into ground (called groundwater) allows us to farms, drink,
What is transpiration? process in which water evaporates from plants
What is Runoff? water that moves along earth’s surface, adds to streams and rivers
What happens in evaporation? heat energy from sun breaks up the bonds in water molecules, and they evaporate
Where does ocean get its water from? precipitation, groundwater, rivers
What are reservoirs? storage places of water
Water is always cycling from the ____ to the _____ and back atmosphere, earth
There is always the same amount of water in ___ and ____ stays balanced because ______ in atmosphere and earth’s surface, evaporation and precipitation constantly occur
How does the sun affect the hydrosphere? it helps keep the water moving around the hydrosphere
Water cycle has been ____ for ____ of years circulating for billions of years
What is carbon also known as? Why? building block of all life, because it is in sugar which is in DNA
Where is most carbon found? in air, in mantle
How is carbon naturally released? when something dies, from volcanic eruptions, humans and animals breathe it out
How is carbon unnaturally released? burning fossil fuels
What are carbon sinks? things that take in more carbon than they release (plants, oceans)
Why has carbon dioxide been increasing burning oil, coal, cutting trees_
What happens to CO2 when you burn rainforests? burning = burning = CO2 in air, less trees = more CO2
Define greenhouse effect warming up of the earth from greenhouse gases in the atmosphere like CO2 and methane
What happens in the greenhouse effect? plants, water, land send some solar radiation back in form of infrared radiation (heat) → greenhouse gases trap it and send it back to earth
Why is too much CO2 bad? it means too many greenhouses gases which means the earth will get too warm
Define primary succession gradual growth of organisms in a bare rock area
What happens in primary succession? bare rocks grows lichen, which breaks down the rock into soil using its acid. Then insects + small animals come. Then bigger plants and more moisture, bigger animals. Eventual climax community.
What are pioneer organisms? organisms that enter an area first (moss and lichen)
What is a climax community? a stable community with plants and animals
Define secondary succession? Change in a community that has soil.
What happens in secondary succession? Weeds → grasses → shrubs → young forest → mature forest
How does secondary succession usually start? with a fire
What are two main differences between primary and secondary succession? 1) primary happens from bare rock, secondary happens from soil 2) Secondary is way faster because it doesn’t have that bare rock stage.
Name the 4 types of Competition Interspecific, intraspecific, interference, exploitative
What is interspecific competition? over resources between different species
What is intraspecific competition? over resources between same species
What is interference competition? fighting/disrupting
What is the Competition exclusion theory(basically)? all organisms exist in competition for available resources
Describe 3 parts of Competition Exclusion Theory a. organisms that create competitive advantage will flourish at expense of less competitive b. No two organisms have same niche c. One lives, the other dies
3 most common animal interactions Competing for same food supply, Eating (predation), Avoiding being eaten
What is a predator? An organism that lives by preying on other organisms
Why do the predator and prey rise and fall as they do in the population graph? As the prey rise, the predators ride just behind them. As they rise they overpopulate and many prey get eaten. The predators then die until the prey can repopulate.
Gregarious prey that tend to form groups with others of same species
Camouflage adaptation allows the animal to blend in with environment to
Batesian Mimicry Looking like another species that is dangerous or may taste bad
Mullerian mimicry lots of species that all share warning colors (red, warm colors)
Relative abundance amount of each species in percent (of that community, 6 percent are beta fish)
Biomass weight of living material
Frequency repeating events over time
What is biodiversity? Why is it important? variety of species in an ecosystem (more variety → healthier ecosystem)
Avoidance (give ex) animals have certain physical features that help them not get eaten (ex) warning colors, shells, poisonous, spikes
Created by: mhaq.16