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MIP final

final for MIP 315 - Human and Animal Disease

Group of heterogenous cancers with a poor prognosis Non-Hodgekin's Lymphoma
cells affected by Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma B and T cells
Cause of Non-Hodgkin's Lmyphoma translocation mutation to a protooncogene and environmental factors
most common type of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Diffuse Large Cell
current treatment regime for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma CHOP-R chemo cocktail
Rabies virus type RNA virus
route of transmission for Rabies saliva (can rarely be aerolized)
countries with the most cases of Rabies Africa and Asia
symptoms of Rabies flu-like symptoms, strange behavior, muscle spasms, painful swallowing, and hydrophobia
3 phases of Rabies Incubation (virus binds to muscle and nerve cells and remains dormant), Prodromal (virus moves to CNS to cause acute encephalitis), and Neurological (if reached, fatality is 100%)
5 factors that lead to obesity overeating, sedentary lifestyle, genetics, medical/psychiatric illnesses, and social interactions
what percent of americans are obese? 75%
treatments for obesity low-calorie diets, appetite suppressants, surgical intervention
species most effected by mast cell tumors dogs (but does occur in some cats
cancerous immune cell dysfunction mast cell tumor
grading of mast cell tumors Grade 1 - no metastasis, good prognosis Grade 2 - some spreading, 50/50 prognosis Grade 3 - metastasize quickly, very poor prognosis
origin of mast cell tumors bone marrow
where mast cell tumors present skin
pathogenesis of mast cell tumor formation antigen binds to B cells and cause them to release IgE antibodies that attach to mast cells and cause them to degranulate. This causes over-production of histamine and cytokines
Polio virus type RNA neurological virus
occurrence of polio world-wide eradicated from vaccination in most countries
Polio route of transmission fecal-oral (spreads through poor sanitation of food and water)
disease that spreads through lymph nodes to the CNS where is destroys neurons and causes paralysis Polio virus
age group most effected by Polio young children
Polio serotypes PV1, PV2, PV3 - differ in their virus capsid
most common serotype of Polio PV1
most common outcome of Polio 95% of patients are asymptomatic, only 5% actually display symptoms and very few develop paralysis
mental disease that makes it difficult to differentiate between fiction and reality schizophrenia
pathological cause of Schizophrenia chemical imbalance of Dopamine in the brain
2 disposing etiological factors of Schizophrenia environmental and genetic (genetic factors predominate)
schizophrenia brain changes enlarged ventricles leading to loss of grey matter and damage to communications between brain sections
treatments for Schizophrenia anti-psychotics, psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy
infectious agent that cause TB Mycobacterium tuberculosis
bacterial infection that infects macrophages in the upper lobes of the lungs TB
TB route of transmission aerosol-droplet
#1 predisposing factor for TB HIV infection
location TB is most prevalent underdeveloped countries
2 phases of TB Primary TB - formation of grannulomas (areas of infection) that turn into lesions Secondary TB (contagious phase) - reactivation of lesions
dominant inherited prion disease that causes insomnia, dementia, and degeneration of autonomic nervous system Fatal Familial Insomnia
pathological cause of Fatal Familial Insomnia holes in thalamus and hypothalamus and lead to an overproduction of astrocytes
genetic disease where red blood cells become crescent shaped and block of blood vessels Sickle Cell Anemia
transmission of sickle cell anemia autosomal recessive trait
Adenovirus virus type double-stranded DNA virus
virus used as a vector in gene therapy Adenovirus
characteristics of Adenovirus that make it a good vector has many different serotypes and thus can infect many different tissue types
possible future uses for Adenovirus HIV vaccine, cancer therapy (tumor specific targeting), addiction therapy (preventing drug from reaching brain)
infectious agent that causes Equine Infectious Anemia EIA virus - blood-bourne reterovirus
route of transmission of Equine Infectious Anemia blood-sucking insects, contaminated medical equipment, placental transmission
cells infected by EIA virus macrophages
why EIA causes life-long infection disease constantly evolves to evade immune system
gram negative bacterial infection in lifestock and humans that prevents macrophages from releasing cytokines Brucellosis
part of the world most effected by Brucellosis underdeveloped world
symptoms of Brucellosis in humans flu-like symptoms, but severe cases can display CNS and cardiac symptoms that lead to death
most common route of infection of Brucellosis in humans ingestion of infected food products
why brucellosis is so devastating in lifestock causes spontaneous abortions
transmission of Marfan's syndrome autosomal dominant trait, but 30% of cases are due to a spontaneous mutation
Autosomal dominant trait that causes no production of the elastic fibers in connective tissues leading to abnormally tall individuals Marfan's Syndrome
systems most affected by Marfan's Syndrome Occular (nearsightedness), Cardiovascular (inadequate circulation), Skeletal (disproportionate long limbs)
transmission of Syphilis Bacterial STD only found in humans transmitted via direct contact
symptoms of syphilis lesions on genitalia hands and feet, followed by a systemic infection that effect the CNS and cardiovascular systems
how syphilis spreads in body starts in genitalia, moves to lymphatic system, blood, and finally to the heart and CNS
groups most affected by syphilis black, male, underdeveloped countries
infection of syphilis will increase the probability of transmitting what other disease HIV
Most common type of diabetes in the US Type 2
symptoms of type 2 diabetes increased thirst and urination, retinopathy, neuropathy, and heart disease
2nd leading cause of blindness ochnocerciasis
transmissible agent that causes onchocerciasis nematode parasite
route of transmission of onchocerciasis flies that breed in fast-flowing water
part of the world most affected by onchocerciasis western and sub-saharan africa
pathology of onchocerciasis nematodes infect person, die, and release their bacterial endosymbioant that causes a massive infection that leads to ocular and dermal manifestations
onchocerciasis symptoms nodules filled with reproducing nematodes, blindness, rash, intense itching, leopard skin, hanging groin
bacterial disease that attack Schwann cells to cause demylination of peripheral nerves Leprosy
resivours of leprosy mostly human, but also found in armadillos
leprosy route of transmission aerosol-droplet mainly, but also contact with infected lesions
symptoms of leprosy non-painful lesions caused by inflammation and damage to peripheral nerves, muscle weakness, and lack of feeling in extremities
disease known as the "zombie fungus" due to its ability to rewire the brains of insects cordyceps
pathological path of cordyceps fungi germinates in an insect, rewires brain and eats away at soft tissues, mummifies insect, and finally sprouts a fruiting body from insects head
commercial uses of cordyceps dye, antimicrobial, anti-malaria drug
possible future uses for cordyceps anti-fatigue and breast cancer therapy
disease that has a huge economical effect due to infected lifestock needing to be slaughtered to contain infection foot and mouth disease
why immunization of lifestock against foot and mouth disease is not possible virus constantly evolving rendering vaccines and immunity futile
symptoms of foot and mouth disease fever, blisters on hooves and mouth that cause excessive drooling, and inflammation of heart in severe cases
Created by: c.phill