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Severe Weather 3

What is the height of the water in the river? The rivers stage
What is a flood stage? when the river starts to threaten the surrounding area
What is a river's floodplain? the area that has been repeatedly inundated by the river
What is a levee a naturals or artificial wall around the river that prevents the river from spilling onto the flood plain
The area that drains into a river, stream, lake, or ocean? a drainage basin or watershed
Continental divide separates the drainage basin that emptys into different oceans
short local floods that occur mostly on small portions of streams or river valleys, often with little or no warning flash floods
occur on larger scales and develop more slowly, usually from many storms or melting snow over a big area widespread floods
when storm surge from tropical or midlatitude cyclone produces a temporary rise in lake or ocean levels coastal floods
what is the biggest hazard of deaths hot weather
what is measured in the heat index air temperature and relative humidity
sunlight adds how much temp to the heat index values 15 degrees
what does extreme danger on the heat index mean? Heat strokes or sunstroke highly likely
Heat cramp painful spasms, usually in muscles of leg or abdomen, heavy sweating. Apply pressure on cramping muscles; give victim sips of water
Heat exhaustion Heavy sweating cold, clammy skin, thready pulse possible nausea, fainting or vomiting. Give victim sips of water seek immediate medical attention
Heat stroke high body temperature, hot dry skin, rapid and strong pulse, possible unconciousness. Do not give fluids to victim; seek immediate emergency aid
One way heat waves form during the summer High pressure system aloft produces strong solar heating, the high then subsidences to the earths surface
low temperature inversion happens when? during the end of a heat wave
Who is at greatest risk during a heat wave? the inner city (can not leave windows open during the evening)
rimming snowflakes can become coated in supercooled water in this process
graupel what snowflakes become when coated in supercooled water, form as embryos around which hailstones form by continuing to collect supercooled water
Where do graupels occur? between 0 and -15, especially updrafts of 22 mph or more
Graupels need snow plows? yes, occasionally
largest hailstone recorded? 1.9 pounds, 8 inches in diameter
Radiations electric and magnetic fields are always perpendicular to each other and to the direction of travel Unpolarized radiation vibrates randomly in all directions; polarized radiation vibrates in predictable direction
unpolarized radiation the orientation of the field changes randomly
a polarizing filter only allows vibrations in a certain direction to pass through it, splits the red and blue arrows, and only allowing the ups and down component to pass through the filter
incoming sunlight is... mostly unpolarized
when the sunlight becomes polarized when... the polarizing filter shown here is turned to an angle that removes most of the light reflecting off the waters surface
wearing polarized glasses to see through a car windshield that's being covered by a continuous sheet of heavy rain
air must reach the electrical gradient of what before it allows the current to flow between positive and negative charged areas 1,000,000
interference charging one of the mechanisms that can produce strong areas of negative charge near the bottom of thunderstorm and areas of positive charge near the top of the storm
lighting can heat the air to what temperature? 30,000 kelvin
sound travels how fast? 343 meters per second
light travels 300,000,000 meters per second
thunder takes 5 seconds to travel how far 1 mile
What are strong downdrafts that descends from cumulus clouds to the groud, can exceed 100 mph winds downbursts
if downbursts winds extend no more than four km in any horizontal direction microbursts
downburst larger than 4 km macroburst
microbursts are more likely to form when what is larger what is? ELR
wet microbursts have precipitation or virga and thus can often be detected visually or with radar
dry microburst have no precipitation which which can make them very difficult to detect with radar or visually, sometime rising dust on the ground will will away their presence
hurricanes can only form in areas where the sea-surface temperature is what? 27 degrees Celsius
air rises and produces what that powers hurricanes latent heat realease
hurricanes require what from coriolis so their central low pressure isnt filled in by convergence? large scale rotation
when do most tropical storms happen? September
The ITCZ is the greatest source of what type of storm? thunder storms that become hurricanes
what besides ITCZs also produces hurricanes? easterly waves and mid-latitude cyclones that more over tropical waters
Which type of storm is well-organized which is why they can last over four days? hurricanes
what helps a hurricane prevent its downdrafts from cutting off its updrafts? rotation
what warms the air that sinking within the hurricanes eye so that it is very warm when it reaches the surface? adiabatic compression
what can enhance the instability within the eyewall? the surface winds
WRF stands for what? Weather Research Forecasting
What direction of rotation can make winds on the right side of a hurricane stronger than on the left side? Lefty-LOWsie
Northern Hemisphere tornadoes form most frequently on which side of the hurricane? (relative to hurricanes movement) right
winds in a hurricanes eye wall are much faster than on the adjacent eye because? wind shear
the resulting vortices and updrafts can create what? the can play roles in hurricane intensification and promote tornado outbreaks within some hurricanes hot towers
What is a major cause of storm surge? Strong winds create large waves
What is a major cause of storm surge? The air pressure in a hurricane is lower than in surrounding areas so the air pushes down on the water within a hurricane than on surrounding waters, creating higher water levels near the hurricane
What is helping to predict hurricanes paths? numerical models, computer programs, simulated weather processes using physics
What does SLOSH stand for? Sea, Lake, & Overland Surges from Hurricanes
What does SST stand for Sea-Surface Temperature