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CST 229 Ch 6 Vocab

CST 229 Chapter 6 Vocabulary

Language an arbitrary, symbolic system that labels and categorizes objects, events, groups, people, ideas, feelings, experiences, and many other phenomena
Denotative Meaning emphasizes its objective, dictionary definition shared and recognized by the majority members of a linguistic community
Connotative Meaning stresses the subjective, interpretive meanings of a word constructed by individual members based on their cultural and personalized language experience
Phonological Rules (Phonology) refer to the different accepted procedures for combining phonemes
Phonemes the smallest sound units of a word
Accent the inflection or tone of voice that is taken to be characteristic of an individual
Morphological Rules (Morphology) refers to how combinations of different sounds make up a meaningful word or part of a word
Syntactic Rules (Syntactics) refer to how words are sequenced together in accordance with the grammatical practices of the linguistic community
Semantic Rules (Semantics) concern the features of meaning we attach to words
Pragmatic Rules (Pragmatics) refer to the contextual rules that govern language usage in a particular culture
Speech Community a group of individuals who share a common set of normative expectations and communication rules regarding appropriate or inappropriate interaction practices in a community
Inductive Reasoning refers to the importance of facts and evidence to make a claim
Deductive Reasoning refers to the primacy of conceptual models or big principles to start and then moves on to specific analytical points of inferences and factual conclusions
Linear Worldview emphasizes rational or analytical thinking that is based on an objective reality
Relational Worldview emphasizes holistic or connected thinking that is based on a contextual reality
Relational Worldview emphasizes the importance of concerns about relational loyalty and trust, extended family connections, and ingroup membership dignity and honor
Dramatic Spiral Reasoning style that includes effusive metaphors, stories, parables, and wide range of flowery adjectives to reinforce a point
Understated Spiral Reasoning style that includes subtle messages, implied hints, reserved talks, relational reasons, and tactful nonverbal gestures to convey an intended meaning and context
Low-Context Communication the emphasis is on how intention or meaning is expressed through explicit verbal messages
High-Context Communication the emphasis is on how intention or meaning can best be conveyed through the embedded contexts and the nonverbal channels of the verbal message
Direct Style statements tend to reveal the speaker's intentions with clarity and are enunciated with a forthright tone of voice
Indirect Style statements tend to camouflage the speaker's actual intentions and are carried out with a softer tone
Self-Enhancement Style emphasizes the importance of drawing attention to or exaggerating one's credentials, outstanding accomplishments, and special abilities
Self-Humbling Style emphasizes the importance of downplaying oneself via modest talk, restraint, hesitation, and the use of self-deprecation message concerning one's performance or effort
Created by: ksison