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Fcat Science 8

8th Grade Science Fcat Vocab

abiotic factor any non living part of the environment, water, sunlight etc.
abrasion a form of erosion that occurs when wind blows sediment into rocks, makes pits in rock and produces smooth, polished surfaces
absolute magnitude measure of the amount of light the star actually gives off
abyssal plain flat sea floor area form 4,000 t0 6,000 m below the ocean surface
acceleration equals the change in velocity divided by the time. An object speeds up, slows down or changes direction
acid rain damaging rain or snow formed when gases released by burning oil and coal mix with water in the air
actinides the second series of inner transition element which goes from thorium to lawrencium
air resistance a contact force that acts to slow objects that are moving in the air
alkali metal element in group 1 of the periodic table
allele an alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait, can be dominant or recessive
amniotic sac thin, liquid-filled, protective membrane that forms around the embryo
alkaline earth metal group 2 in the periodic table
apparent magnitude measure of the amount of light from a star received in earth
archimedes principle states that the buoyant fore on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid placed on the object
asexual reproduction type of reproduction in which a new organism is produced from one organism and has DNA identical to the parent organism
average speed total distance over the time taken to travel the distance
balanced forces two or more forces that cancel when they combine and make the net force equal to zero
benthos marine plants and animals that live on or in the ocean floor
biosphere part of earth that supports life
biotic factor any living or once living organism in the environment
black hole final stage in the evolution of a very massive star, where he core's mass collapses o a point that it's gravity is so strong that not even light can escape
buoyant force upward force exerted on and object immersed in a fluid
carrier wave radio waves broadcast by a radio or TV station at an assigned frequency that contains info. used to produce pictures and sound
catalyst substance that can make something happen faster without changing itself
chemical bond force that holds two atoms together
chemical weathering process in which he chemical composition of a rock is changed by agents such as natural acids and oxygen
chemosynthesis food making process using sulfur or nitrogen compound, rather than light energy from the sun, that is used by bacteria near hydro thermal vents
chromosome structure in a cell's nucleus that contains hereditary material
comet space object made of dust and rock particles mixed with frozen water, methane, and ammonia that form a bright coma as it approaches the sun
conductor material that transfers heat easily
constellation pattern of stars that is named as a group and forms and image or shape
continental shelf gradually sloping end of a continent that exists beneath the ocean
continental slope ocean basin feature that dips steeply down from he continental shelf
corona outer most layer of the sun's atmosphere
covalent bond chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons
creep process by which sediments move slowly downhill
deflation erosion of land that occurs when wind blows across loose sediment and carries hem away, often leaving behind particles too heavy to move
density mass of an object divided by volume
diploid cell whose similar chromosomes occur in pairs
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; genetic material of all organisms
dominant describes a trait that dominates another form of that trait
ecology study of all the interaction among organisms and their environment
egg haploid sex cell formed in the female reproductive organs
electro magnetic radiation energy transferred from place to place by electromagnetic waves
electron dot diagram chemical symbol for and element, surrounded bay as many dot as there are electrons in the outer energy levels
entropy the measure of the disorder in a system
erosion the wearing away and removal of rock material that occurs by agents such as gravity, ice, wind and water
estuary are where a river meet the ocean
evolution change in inherited characteristics over time
fault large fracture in a rock along which movement occurs
fertilization joining of sperm and egg
fetal stress can occur durn the birth process or just after birth as and infant adjusts form watery dark constant temp. to a new environment
fetus a developing baby after the first two months of pregnancy until birth
folded mountain mountain that forms by folding rock layer caused by compressive forces
force push or pull that one object exerts on another
frond leaf of a fern that grows from he rhizome
gametophyte plant life cycle stage that begins when cells in reproductive organisms undergo meiosis and produce haploid cells
gamma ray highest frequencies shortest wave lengths
gene section o DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins
genetics the study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism
germination a series of events that results in the growth of a plant from a seed
giant late stage of life of a comparatively low-mass main sequence star in which hydrogen in the core is deleted, the core contracts, and temperature inside the star increase, causing its outer layers to expand and cool
great red spot giant, high pressure storm in jupiter's atmosphere
halogen group 17 in the periodic table
heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
heterozygous organism that has two different alleles for a trait
homologous body part that are similar in structure and origin and can be similar in function
infer draw conclusion based on info.
instantaneous speed the speed f and object at one instant time
ion and atom that is no longer neutral because it has gained or lost and electron
ionic bond attraction that hold oppositely charge ions close together
isostasy principal statin that earth's lithosphere float on plastic-like upper part o the mantle called the asthenosphere
law of conservation of momentum the total momentum of h e group remains constant unless and outside force acts on the group
mass movement occurs when gravity alone causes a rock or sediment to move down slope
mechanical weathering process that breaks rocks down into smaller pieces without changing them chemically
metallic bond bond formed when metal atoms share their pooled electrons
metalloid element that shares some properties with both metal and non metals
meteor meteoroid that burns up in earths atmosphere
meteorite meteoroid that hits the surface of a moon or planet
mid-ocean ridge area where new ocean floor is formed when lava erupts through the cracks in Earth's crust
molecule neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons
momentum a measure of how hard its to stop an object
net force combination of all forces acting on an object
newton's first law of motion it ht net force acting on an object is 0 the , an objet will remain at rest or stay in a straight line
newton's second law of motion the acceleration of an object equals net force over mass
newton's third law for every action there is a reaction
niche role of an organism in the ecosystem
ore mineral source that can be mined at profit
Pascal's Principle when a force is applied to a confined fluid, and increase in pressure is transmitted to all parts of the fluid
period horizontal row of elements
phenotype outward physical appearance and behavior of an organism as a result of t genotype
physical science study of matter
polar bond bond resulting from unequal sharing of electrons
polygenic inheritance when a group of gene pair acts together and produces a specific trait, such as human eye color, skin color, or height
punnett square a tool to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring tha show the different ways alleles can combine
radiation transfer of energy by electro magnetic waves
radio waves lowest frequencies longest wave lengths
recessive trait that is covered or dominated by another trait
rhizome underground stem
RNA ribonucleic acid, a type of nucleic acid that carries codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes
scientific law a rule that describes a pattern in nature
scientific theory a possible explanation for repeatedly observed patterns in nature supported by observation
slump occurs when a mass of rock sediment moves down hill along a curved surface
speed distance traveled over time
subduction plate movement that occurs when one plate sinks beneath another plate
surface tension uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid
thermal energy kinetic plus potential
vaporization liquid to gas
velocity displacement over time
viscosity liquids resistance to float
weathering natural mechanic or chemical process that causes rock to change by breaking them down and causing theme to crumble
weight size of gravitational force exerted on an object
Created by: didirodro