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Exercise 37A

Respiratory System Physiology

name the two phases pulmonary ventilation/breathing are inspiration & expiration
inspiration when air is taken into the lungs
expiration when air passes out of the lungs
as the inspiratory muscles (external intercostals & diahragm) contract during inspiration the size to the throacic cavity increase
during inspiration the diaphragm moves from ____ to ___ a relaxed dome shape to a flattened position (increase the superoinferior volume
the _____ lift the rib cage; ____ the anteroposterior & lateral dimensions external intercostals; increasing
lungs adhear to the thoracic walls bc of the presence of serous fluid in the pleural cavity
as intrapulmonary volume increase, the air (gas) pressure inside the lungs ___ decreases
what is intrapulmonary volume volume within the lungs
during expiration the ____ relax inspiratoy muscles
during expiration the natural tendency of the elastic lung tissue to reoil acts to ___ the ___ & ___ volumes decrease the intrathoracic & intrapulmonary volumes
as the gas molecules within the lungs are forced closer together, the intrapulmonary pressure ___ rises; to a oint higher than atmospheric pressure
what does this cause? gases to flow from the lungs to equalize the pressure inside & outside the lungs (act of expiration)
normal quiet breathing moves about _____ of air in & out of th elungs w. each breath 500ml
TV idal volume; amount of air inhaled or exhaled w. each breath under resting conditions (500ml)
IRV inspiratory reserve volume; amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation (3100 ml)
ERV expiratory reserve volume; amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation (2100 ml)
VC vital capacity; maximm amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration (4800 ml)
give the VC equation VC= TV+ IRV + ERV
spirometer measures respiratory volumes
name the two major types of spirometers handheld dry/wheel & "wet" spirometers (phipps & Bird spirometer)
emphysema a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that causes the ERV to be dramatically reduced in conditions in which the elasticity of the lungs is decreased
give the equation for MRV (minute respiratory volume (MRV= TV x respirations/min)
FVC (focrced vital capacity) measures the amount of gas expelled when the subject takes the deepest possible breath & then exhales focefully & rapidly
pulmonary function tests can help the clinician to distinguish between __&___ obstructive disorders & restrictive pulmonary diseases
Examples of obstructive disorders chronic bronchitis & asthma
what is happening during obstructive disorders airway resistance is increased
Examples of restrictive diseases polio & tuberculosis
what is happening during restrictive disease total lung capacity declines
FEVt forced expiratory volume; specifically looks at the percentage of the vital capacity that is exhaled during specific time intervals of the FVC test
FEV1 amount exhaled during the first second (low in those w. obstructive disease)
the neurl centers that control respiratory rhythm & maintain a rate of __ to __ respirations/min are located in the ___ & ___ 12 to 18; medulla & pons
death occurs whe ______ are completely ____ medullary centers are completely suppressed
an example of this happening would be an overdose of sleeping pills or gross overindulgence in alcohol & respiration ceases completely
pneumograph apparatus that records variations in breathing patterns, is the best means of obs resp variations resulting fr. physical & chemical factors
bronchial sounds produced by air rushing through the large respiratory passageway (the trachea & the bronchi)
vesicular breathing sounds results from air filling the alveolar sacs & resmbles the sound of a rustling or muffled breeze
Created by: Brina