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Final Micro test

lecture 2 of 3 for final micro test

meningitis inflammation of the covering of the brain
bacterial Meningitis Neisseria meningitidis
Neisseria meningitidis gram negative diplococci
virulence related to capsule, pill, endotoxins
Neisseria meningitidis is transmitted by droplets
there are differnt types of Neisseria meningitidis which two types are highly infectious Type B & C
what are the Sign and symptoms of Neisseria meningitidis? fever, stiff neck and headache, and rapidly progress to convulsions and coma
How do you diagnosis Neisseria meningitidis? Gram stain, culture of CSF (which must be back in 1 hour) and rapid diagnosis is essential
what is the treatment of Neisseria meningitidis? penicillin and penicillin family antibiotics, rifampin prophylaxis
there is a vaccine for neisseria meningitidis but who is it not effective in? Children
name three other bugs that cause meningitidis streptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus spp. listeria spp.
Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis
listeria monocytogenes is caused by? consuming the bacterium (usually dairy)
Who does listeria monocytogenes affect? elderly pregnant women new borns and adults with weakended immune systems
listeria monocytogenes is a gram _____ _____, and may appear in _____. This bug is non_____ forming. postive rod, chains, spore
what are the symptoms of listeria monocytogenes fever, muscle aches, nausea or diarrhea
if listeria monocytogenes progress to the nervous system what would the symptoms be then headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance or convulsions
tell me about listeria monocytogens in the pregnant women mild flue-like illness, severe for unborn child
how can we prevent listeria monocytogenes thoroughly cook raw food, wash raw vegetables, keep uncooked meat separate from vegetables, avoid unpasteruized milk, consume perishable and ready to eat foods as soon as possible.
Viral meningitis is also known as? aseptic meningitis
this viral meningitis is usually caused by enterovirus
viral meningitis usually affects infants and young children
enterovirus r/t viral meningitis is part of this family poliovirus which is a rna virus
what are the symptoms of viral meningitis in an adult high fever, headache and stiff neck, nausea, vomiting.
what are the symptoms of viral meningitis in a infant fever, irritability, poor eating, hard to awaken
how we do we diagnose viral meningitis? requires spinal tap, negative for bacterial antigens, negative for gram stain, & RT-PCR
is there any treatment for viral meningitis NO
Botulism paralytic illness
botulism is caused by clostridium botulinum
botulism is a gram positive rod shape
botulism is found in the soil
botulism prefers low O2 conditions
botulism has ______ production exotoxin
there are 3 types of botulism what are they? foodborne, wound, and infant
the transmission of botulism is food containing botulium toxin, infected wound, consuming spores from honey
what are the symptoms of botulism double/blurred vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness
botulism may lead to arms, legs, trunk, respiratory muscles
how do you diagnose botulism patients history, physicak examination, stool, serum
what is treatment for votulism foodborne and wound botulsim- may induce vomiting, may use enames, equine antitoxin, wounds treated surgically, appropriate antibiotics, human derived antitoxin for infants
treatment for severe form of botulism ventilators for weeks, intensive medical and nursing care
clostridum tetani causes tetanus
clostridium tetani is a gram? positive
clostridium forms terminal endospores
clostridium likes what kind of air anaerobic
clostridium tetani is found in the soil
the virulence of tetanus is that it has a powerful exotoxin that can produce neurotoxin
the neurotoxin from the exotoxin that tetanus produces interfers with muscular contraction and relaxation
symptoms of this neurotoxin that the exotoxin that tetanus produces is stiff or "lock jaw", sardonic smile muscles stay contracted
how do you diagnose tetanus examination and wound culture
what is the treatment of tetanus antibiotic, and antitoxins
what is the prognosis of tetanus fetal in 30% of adults and fetal in 90% of infants
if there is a vaccine for tetanus what would the name be DPT & Tdap
Polio president roosevelt
poliomyelitis break it down polio (grey) and myelon (marrow)
where does Polio reside only in humans
Is polio RNA or DNA based RNA
what group is polio part of enterovirus group
what can polio be transffered in feces, blood, mucous
what are the symptoms for polio fever, headache, muscle pains, localized muscle paralysis, death if nerves in brain stem are paralyzed
how do you diagnose Polio recognized by symptoms, confirmation by PCR from throat, stool or CSF
what is the treatment of Polio there is no cure, control secondary infections
how can you prevent Polio Vaccine by oral polio vaccine (OPV) or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV)
Rabies is this virus lassavirus
rabies is a _____ virus RNA
Rabies is "_____" shaped bullet
Rabies is _______ Zoonotic
rabies is ______ in humans and is transmitted by infected _______. rare, saliva
these two animales are teh primary culprit of rabies what are they Bats & raccoons
with Rabies the virus is replicated in the _____ muscle
one rabies is replicated it migrates to the ____ CNS
from teh CNS rabies continues to the Brain
From the brain rabies can lead to death
what are the intial symptoms of rabies pain discomfort at site of exposure, fever and malaise
what are the late symptoms of rabies hydrophobia, salivation, convulsions, paralysis, and death
hwo do you diagnosis rabies can only be tested in animals, and requires the hind brain, you use DFA, and negri bodies
what is the treatment of rabies depends on site of bit- face/hand= emergancey, the body is non-er. wash bite site, and adminster human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) must IM away from the site, patient will recieve rabies vaccine series, adn treatment is successful if administered early
Arboviruses arthropod borne viruses
arbovirus is always transferred from arthropod (insect)
it is a ______ virus RNA
there are 5 major encephalitis virus common knowledge of 3 what are they? Saint louis encephalitis (SLE) eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) West nile virus (WNV)
WNV is a bio-terrism agent
Arboviruse is transmitted by ______ bites and horses & birds are the _______ mosquito, reservoir
what are the symptoms of Arbovirus abrupt onset, high fever, horrible headache, and may lead to paralysis
What is the treatment of Arbovirus supportive
how do you prevent arboviruses surveillance, and eliminate vector
tell me the prognosis of WNV, EEE, and SLE WNV 10% fatal, EEE 33% fatal, and SLE 5-30%
Creutzfeld- Jakob disease a prion disease
what is a prion a missed shaped protein mutated protein
Creutzfeld-Jakob disease is a _________ brain disorder Neurodegenerative
Creutzfeld-Jakob disease is _____ progressive and always _____ rapidly, fatal
Creutzfeld-Jakob disease has three catagories of disease what are they? Sporadic, hereditary, acquired
Sporadic is the most ______ form, adn accounts for 85% of cases, transmissible from host to ____, the cause is _____. common, host, unknown
sporadic creutzfeld-Jakob disease can destroy ____ ______ giving it a spongy appearance, it can lead to ______ and _____. brain tissue, dementia and death
hereditary Crutzfeld-Jakob disease has a family ____ of the disease, and is genetically _____. history, predisposed
hereditary Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, subject will test positive for a genetic mutation
Aquired Creutzfeld-Jakob disease acquired type is the _____ type. Rarest
exposure to infected brain tissue, usually through various medical procedures and human to human transmission, cattle to human transmission, are all major health concern but what type of Creutzfeld-Jakob is this acquired
How do you diagnose Creutzfeld-Jakob disease eeg, protein detection in CSF, MRI, only true confirmation is by a brain biopsy or an autopsy
what is the treatment for Creutzfeld jakob disease comfort measures, pain control, education to the family
what is the prognosis of Creutzfeld Jakob disease average 2 years, few "long term"
Created by: krw882