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Ch. 6 Anatomy Cards!

Chapter 6

Contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
Excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
Extensibility the ability to be stretched
Elasticity the ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
Epimysium connective tissue sheath that surrounds each skeletal muscle
Fascia another connective tissue located outside the epimysium; it surrounds and separates the muscle
Perimysium loose connective tissue that surrounds fasciculi
Fasciculi (Fascicle) numerous visible bundles that make up muscle
Endomysium connective tissue sheath that surrounds each muscle fiber
Muscle Fiber a single cylindrical cell containing several nuclei
Myofibril a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
Myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers... actin & myosin (myofilaments)
Sarcomere highly ordered units created by actin & myosin myofilaments, which are joined end to end to form the myofibril
The basic structural & functional unity of the muscle Sarcomere
Each Z line is the site for... actin
I bands consist of... actin
The H zone consists of only... myosin
Resting Membrane Potential the charge difference across the membrane between the inside (-) & the outside(+)
Action Potential the brief reversal back of the charge when a muscle is stimualated
Motor Neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
Neuromuscular Junction (Synapse) what is formed when each branch connects to the muscle near the center of the cell
Motor Unit a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
Presynaptic Terminal the enlarged nerve terminal
Synaptic Cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
Postsynaptic Terminal the muscle fiber
Synaptic Vesicles secrete neurotransmitters called acetylcholine
Acetylcholine diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the postsynaptic terminal causing a change in the postsynaptic cell
Acetylcholinesterase an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine
Muscle Twitch a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
Threshold the point at which the muscle fiber will respond to a stimulus
Contraction Phase the time of contraction
Lag Phase the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron & the beginning of a contraction
Relaxation Phase the time during which the muscle relaxes
Tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
Recruitment the increase in number of motor units being activated
ATP is needed for... energy for muscle contraction
Origin the most stationary end of the muscle
Insertion the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
Belly the portion of the muscle between the origin & the insertion
Anaerobic Respiration respiration without oxygen
Fast-Twitch Fibers contract quickly & fatigue quickly. (ex. white meat from a chicken's breast)
Slow-Twitch Fibers contract more slowly & are more resistant to fatigue (ex. dark meat of a duck's breast or the legs of a chicken)
Synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
Antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
Nomenclature how most muscles are characterized (ex. size, location, orientation of fibers, shape, origin, insertion, function, etc.)
Occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi closes the eyelid
Orbicularis oris pucker/ "kissy face"
Buccinator flattens the cheeks
Zygomaticus smiling muscle
Levator labii superioris sneering
Depressor anguli oris frowning
Mastication 4 pair of chewing muscles
Intrinsic Tongue Muscles changes the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic Tongue Muscles moves the tongue
Created by: rebecca121212