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microchemfinal

microchemfinalBIOS252

QuestionAnswer
Define what is a pleomorphic bacteria In cell morphology, term used to describe a variably shaped prokaryotic cell.
All of the following terms can be used to refer to both a bacterial genus and an arrangement or shape of bacterial cells except Tetrad
What are the steps of binary fission and then put them in order, from earliest to latest events 1. The cell replicates its chromosome. The duplicated chromosomes attach to the cytoplasmic memb 2.cell elongates &growth between attach sites pushes the chromosomes apart3.cell forms a new membrane &wall across the midline4. When septum is complted daugh
Define endospores and why do they develop and or break up Environmentally resistant structure produced by the transmission of a vegetative cell of the Gram-positive genera Bacillus or Clostridium. Defensive strategy against hostile or unfavorable conditions.
Which of the following microbes might be found in the Dead Sea Halophiles
What are the characteristics of cyanobacteria Blue-Green bacteria, varies in shape,size, and method of reproduction. range in size from 1µm to 10 µm in diameter and are either coccoid or disc shaped. They are oxygenic, many perform nitrogen fixation, they contain chlorophyll a, and some are motile.
What is associated with clostridia C. tetani (which causes tetanus), C. perfringens (gangrene), C. botulinum (botulism), and C. difficile (severe diarrhea)
Which of the following bacterial genera protects areas of the body such as intestinal tract and the vagina from invasion by pathogens Lactobacillus
What physical arrangements are associated with cocci Diplococci – pairs; streptococci –long chains; tetrads – divide in two planes and remain attached; sarcinae – divide in 3 planes to form cuboidal packets; staphylococci – clusters like grapes.
Can bacilli divide in any plane, resulting in a variety of cellular arrangements True
When an endospore germinates, does it give rise to daughter cells called vegetative cells No, False
The Archaea are classified in two phyla, what are they Archaea are currently classified in two phyla- Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota- based primarily upon rRNA sequences.
Halophiles grow equally well in the presence or absence of high salt concentrations False pg. 337
Do cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll (a) and carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis True pg. 339
Mycoplasmas stain Gram-negative, but are genetically more similar to Gram- positive cells True pg. 342
True or false-some strains of staphylococcus aureus can invade the body and cause diseases such as pneumonia and bacteremia True
Are mycoplasmas named for the large quantities of mycolic acid in their cell walls No, they don’t have cell walls and named mycoplasmas for their filamentous form resemble filaments of fungi. Cytoplasmic membrane has lipids called sterols.
True or false – most of the methane produced by methanogens is oxidized by other types of bacteria before it affects the earth’s climate True, while methanogens produce methane a so called greenhouse gas that retains heat in the atmosphere, methane oxidizers digest most before it affects the world’s climate
True or false –myxobacteria exhibit traits such as cooperation & differentiation, which are not normally observed in prokaryotes True myxobacteria exhibit cooperation & differentiation and are prokaryotes
In the 20th century, scientists harnessed the natural metabolic reactions of bacteria to make with of the following for the first time in an industrial setting Acetone
What is the purpose of restriction enzymes in bacteria Bacteria use restriction enzymes to protect themselves from phages by cutting phage DNA into non-functional pieces
What are the steps for the production of a recombinant vector containing a human gene in order 1) Ligate the dna fragments to produce recomb. Plasmid 2) introduce recombinant plasmid into cell 3) grow bacterial cells on medium containing selective agent (i.e. antibiotic) 4) isolate human gene & vector DNA using restriction enzymes
HIV is being considered as a vector for use in humans because it can do what Retrograde virus that allows it to be written into DNA codes on chromosomes
What are gene libraries Collection of bacterial or phage clones that contain genetic material of interest. Typically contains one gene of an organism’s genome; may contain all genes on single chromosome; contain set of cDNA complimentary to mRNA
In gel electrophoresis DNA molecules move toward the ___________ electrode because they have an overall ___________charge Positive electrode, negative charge
What are restriction enzymes used in Restriction enzymes cut a DNA molecule at a particular place. Essential tools for recombinant DNA technology. By creating sticky or blunt ends is how the scientists combine pieces of DNA from different organisms into a single recombinant DNA molecule
The process of introducing animal organs into the human body is called what Xenotransplant
Define transgenic organisms Recombinant plants and animals that have been altered by adding genes from another organisms for various purposes including herbicide, resistance, tolerance, improvements in nutritional value & yield.
What does “in vitro” mean Within glass
What is an antigen Foreign substances such as weakened bacteria, viruses & toxins that stimulate the body’s immune system. It is a protein that is generated by a cell that can its own self or foreign.
What is agarose 315 It is a purified sugar component of agar
What is neutralization reaction It is a reaction between an acid and a base to produce a salt and water
What is the function of a buffer A buffer is used to maintain a level of Ph
What is the normal Ph of blood 7.35-7.45
If a person is hypoventilating what happens to the blood acidity level The blood level drops under 7.35 and the person becomes acidosis
25.0 mL of 0.212 M NoOH is neutralized by 13.6 mL of an HCL solution. The molarity of the NaOH solution is
A 10.0 mL of 0.121 M H2S is neutralized by 17.1 mL of KOH solution. The molarity of the KOH is
Which of the following membrane can give rise to a viral envelope viral envelope membrane has phospholipid, glycoproteins,portion of the host cell.envelopes help viruses enter host cells.
What disease is known to be caused by prions Bovine sponfiform encephalitis ( mad cow disease); Scrapie in sheep, Creutzfeldt-jakob disease (CJD, kuru
Merozoites are a result of In schizogeny multiple mitoses form a multinucleate schizont; then cytokinesis occurs simultaneously releasing numerous uninucleate daughter cells called merozoites..
What are protozoan cysts & why are they produced Hardy resting stage having thick capsule &low metabolic rate. Cysts allow intestinal protozoa to pass from one host to another &to survive harsh environments such as desiccation, nutrient deficiency, extremes of Oh and temperature, and lack of oxygen.
Hyphae are associated with what microorganism Mold
In a cell that has a diploid number of 8 chromosomes, how many chromatids will be present at the beginning of mitosis 16
Created by: Riva Bard Riva Bard on 2012-04-14



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