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Ch 5 Roman Empire

Roman Empire

Etruscans Shared the Italian peninsula with the Romans and Greeks; people who inhabited early Italy
Republic system of government in which officials are chosen by the people
Patrician member of the landholding upper class
Consul official from the patrician class who supervised the government and commanded the armies
Dictator a leader appointed to rule for six months in times of emergency
Plebeian member of the lower class, including farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders
Tribunes official who was elected by the plebeians to protect their interests
Veto block a government action
Legion basic unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 soldiers
Punic Wars three wars; first war: Rome defeated Carthage in Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia second war in 218 B.C.: Carthaginian general Hannibal led third war: Rome defeated Carthage
Imperialism establishing control over foreign lands and people
Latifundia wealthy families bought up huge farming estates
Tiberius Gracchus elected tribune in 133 B.C., called the state to distribute land to poor farmers (reforms)
Gaius Gracchus elected tribune 143 B.C., sought a wider range of reforms: the use of pubic funds to buy grain to feed the poor
Julius Caesar an ambitious military commander, became emperor and was killed by the senate
Augustus means Exalted Ones; real name Octavian; grandnephew of Julius Caesar and declared him princeps, or first citizen
Census population count
Hadrian a good emperor who codified roman law, making it the same for all provinces; had wall build across Britain to hold back attacks
Marcus Aurelius good emperor, philosopher
Pax Romana (Roman Peace) a 200 year span of peace between Augustus and the end with Marcus Aurelius
Greco-Roman the blend of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman
Virgil wrote epic poem the Aeneid
Satirize to make fun of Roman society
Mosaics a picture made from chips of colored stone or glass
Engineering which is the application of science and mathematics to develop useful structures and machines.
Aqueducts a bridge like stone structures that carried water from the hills into Roman cities
Ptolemy an astronomer-mathematician
Roman law an accused person was presumed innocent until proven guilty; allow to face the accuser and offer a defense against the charge; guilt had to be establish "clearer than Daylight" using solid evidence
Messiah savior sent by God
Apostle leader or teacher of a new faith or movement; in Greek it means "a person sent forth."
Paul a Jew from Asia Minor, played the most influential role in spreading Christianity
Martyr person who suffers of dies for his or her beliefs
Constantine emperor; issued the Edict of Milan
Edict of Milan it granted freedom of worship to all citizens of the Roman Empire
Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire and repressed the practice of other faiths
Clergy the body of people who conduct Christian services
Bishop high-ranking Church official with authority over local area, or diocese
Patriarch highest church official in a major city
Pope head of the Roman Catholic Church; in ancient Rome, bishop of Rome who claimed authority over all other bishops
Heresy religious belief that is contrary to the official teachings of a church
Augustine greatest of the early Church scholars; bishop of Hippo in North Africa; combined Christian doctrine with Greco-Roman learning
Emperor Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into two parts; he controlled the wealthier eastern part and the west was controlled by Maximian
Inflation economic cycle that involves a rapid rise in prices linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available
Constantinople the capital of the eastern Roman Empire
Huns a nomadic people of central Asia
Mercenary soldier serving in a foreign army for pay
Created by: 15_ILiuzza