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FST 4/5 Vocab

Vocabulary for FST 4/5

Intrinsic rewards Rewards that come from within oneself and are personally satisfying for emotional or intellectual reasons
Extrinsic rewards Rewards that come from outside oneself, such as job security and vacations
Professionalism An occupation characterized by a specialized body of knowledge with emphasis on autonomy, decision making, reflection, and ethical standards for conduct
Autonomy The capacity to control one’s own professional life
Curriculum What teachers teach
Assessment How student understanding is measured
Standards Statements specifying what students should know and what skills they should have upon completing an area of study
Technician A person who uses specific skills to complete well-defined tasks
Decision making Problems solving in ill-defined situations, based on professional knowledge
Reflection The process of teachers’ thinking about and analyzing their work to assess its effectiveness
Ethics Sets of moral standards for acceptable professional behavior
Socioeconomic status The amount of money students’ parents make, their parents’ level of education, and the kinds of jobs their parents have
Reforms Suggested changes in teaching and teacher preparation intended to increase the amount students learn
Professional portfolio A collection of representative work materials to document developing knowledge and skills
Digital portfolio A collection of materials contained in an electronic file that makes the information accessible to potential viewers
Accountability The process of requiring students to demonstrate understanding of the topics they study as measured by standardized tests, as well as holding educators at all levels responsible for students’ performance
High-stakes tests Assessment that states and districts use to determine whether or not students will advance from one grade to another, graduate from high school, or have access to specific fields of study
Old Deluder Satan Act Early colonial law designed to create scripture-literate citizens who would thwart Satan’s trickery
Vouchers Checks or written documents that parents can use to purchase educational services
Character education An approach to developing morality that suggests moral values and positive character traits, such as honesty and citizenship, should be emphasized, taught, and rewarded
Common school movement A historical attempt to make education available to all children in the United States
Normal schools Two-year institutions developed in the early 1800s to prepare prospective elementary teachers
Comprehensive high school A secondary school that attempts to meet the needs of all students by housing them together and providing curricular options geared toward a variety of student ability levels and interests
Latin grammar school A college-preparatory school originally designed to help boys prepare for the ministry or, later, for a career in law
Academy A secondary school that focused on the practical needs of colonial America as a growing nation
English classical school A free secondary school designed to meet the needs of boys not planning to attend college
Junior high schools Schools that were originally designed in the early 1900s to provide a unique academic curriculum for early adolescent youth
Middle schools Schools, typically for grades 6-8, specifically designed to help students through the rapid social, emotional, and intellectual changes characteristic of early adolescence
Assimilation A process of socializing people so that they adopt dominant social norms and patterns of behavior
Separate but equal A policy of segregating minorities in education, transportation, housing, and other areas of public life if opportunities and facilities were considered equal to those of nonminorities.
War on Poverty A general term form federal programs designed to eradicate poverty during the 1960s
Compensatory education programs Government attempts to create more equal educational opportunities for disadvantaged youth
Head Start A federal compensatory education program designed to help 3-to 5-year-old disadvantaged children enter school ready to learn
Title I A federal compensatory education program that funds supplemental education services for low-income students in elementary and secondary schools
Magnet schools Public schools that provide innovative or specialized programs that attempt to attract students from all parts of a district
Culture The knowledge, attitudes, values, customs, and behavior patterns that characterize a social group
Cultural diversity The different cultures that you’ll encounter in classrooms and how these cultural differences influence learning
Ethnicity A person’s ancestry; the way individuals identify themselves with the nation from which they or their ancestors came
Multicultural education A general term that describes a variety of strategies schools use to accommodate cultural differences in teaching and learning
Culturally responsive teaching Instruction that acknowledges and accommodates cultural diversity
English language learners (ELLs) Students whose first language is not English and who need help in learning to speak, read, and write in English
Maintenance language programs Language programs that place the greatest emphasis on using and sustaining the first language
Immersion program Language program that emphasizes rapid transition to English
English as a second language (ESL) program Language program that emphasizes rapid transition to English
Transition programs Language programs that maintain the first language until students acquire sufficient English
Gender-role identity Differences in expectations and beliefs about appropriate roles and behaviors of the two sexes
Stereotype A rigid, simplistic caricature of a particular group of people
Single-gender classes and schools Classes and schools where boys and girls are segregated for part or all of the day
Sexual harassment Unwanted and/or welcome sexual behavior that interferes with a student’s sense of well being
Caring A teacher’s investment in the protection and development of the young people in his or her classes
Latchkey children Children who go home to empty houses after school and who are left alone until parent arrive home from work
Socioeconomic status (SES) The combination of family income, parents’ occupations, and the level of parental education
Middle class Socioeconomic level composed of managers, administrators, and white-collar workers who perform nonmanual work
Students placed at-risk Students in danger of failing to complete their education with the skills necessary to survive modern society
Underclass People with low incomes who continually struggle with economic problems
Resilient students Students placed at-risk who have been able to rise above adverse conditions to succeed in school and in other aspects of life
Upper class The socioeconomic class composed of highly educated (usually a college degree), highly paid (usually above $170,000) professionals who make up about 5 percent of the population
Learning style Students’ personal approaches to learning, problem solving, and processing information
State board of education The legal governing body that exercises general control and supervision of the schools in a state
State office of education Office responsible for implementing a state’s education policy on a day-to day basis
School district An administrative unit within a state that is defined by geographical boundaries and is legally responsible for the public education of children within those boundaries
Local school board A group of elected lay citizens responsible for setting policies that determine how a school district operates
School principal The individual having the ultimate administrative responsibility for a school’s operation
Property taxes The major source of educational funding, determined by the assessed value of a home or property
Categorical grants Monies targeted for specific groups and designated purposes
Block grants Federal monies provided to states and school districts with few restrictions for use
Weighted student formula A means of allocating resources within a district to schools on an individual basis based on student needs
Site-based decision making A school management reform movement that attempts to place increased responsibility for governance at the individual school level
Charter schools Alternative schools that are independently operated but publicly funded
Voucher A check or written document that parents can use to purchase educational services
State tuition tax-credit plans A variation on school voucher programs in which parents are given tax credits for money they spend on private-school tuition
Homeschooling An educational option in which parents educate their children at home
Created by: 100000863267405