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Allied Health

Nervous System

What is a neuron? Neuron is the medical word for nerve cell. Neurons transmit a message from one cell to the next. Neurons have a nucleus, cytoplasm ,and cell membrane. (cell body)
What are dentrites? Dendrites are nerve cell processes(extensions/branches) that carry impulse to cell bodies. Each neuron may have one or many dentrites.
What is an axon? A single axon carries impulses away from cell body.
What is the neurilemma(myelin sheath)? It is a covering that speed up the nerve impulse along the axon. Myelin is a fatty substance that protects the axon.
What initiates an impulse? A stimulus does.
Where does the impulse travel first? The sensory(afferent) neurons, which emerge from theskin or sense organs. The impulse comes in on it's dendrite(s) and out on the axon to the next neuron.
What are the associative neurons (interneurons)? They carry impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons.
What are motor(efferent) neurons? They carry messages from brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands. One neuron doesnt completely touch the next.
What is the synapse? It is a space between neurons. Chemicals (neurotransmitters)that cross the synapse carry messages from one cell to the next nerve cell.
What does the centra lnervous system include? The brain and the spinal cord.
What does the peripheral nervous system include? The carnial nerves and the spinal nerves. It is divided into the somatic(voluntay)/skeletal; autonomic nervous system. Not conscious control (involuntary action)
What does the autonomic system include? parasympathetic branch- routine branch (digesting food, eating); sympathetic branch- danger response( muscles contract, heart beat increases, oxygen increased). known also as the fight-or-flight.
The central nervous system? Communication and coordinating system of the body, seat of intellect and reasoning, consists of the brain and spinal cord.
What are meninges? Tough fluid containing membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.
What is the dura mater? The outermost brain covering, line that inside of the skull, tough dense fibrous connective tissue.
What is the subdural space? It is between dura and arachnoid.
What is the arachnoid? The middle layer, resembles fine cobweb(blood vessels).
What is the subarachnoid space? It is between arachnoid and pia mater, filled with cerebrospinal fluid- acts as a liquid shock absorber and source of nutrients for the brain.
What is the pia mater? It covers the brain's surface, comprised of blood vessels held together by connective tissue.(innermost)
What are the characteristics of the brain? 3 lb mass of soft nervous tissue, 100 billion neurons, protected by skull, three membranes called meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid, adequate blood supply is needed, brain tissue will die in 4-8 minutes without oxygen, divided into 4 major parts:
What are the four parts of the brain? Cerebrum, diencephalon, cerebellum, and brain stem.
Ventricles of the brain? There are four cerebral ventricles which are four cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
Whare are the left and right side of the brain? Lateral ventricles.
The third ventricle. Behind and below the lateral ventricles.
Fourth ventricle. Below the 3rd ventricles, in front of the cerebellum and behind the pons and medulla oblongata.
What are the choroid plexus? Network of blood vessels lining the ventricles which helps in the formation of cerebrospinal fluid.
What is the cerebrospinal fluid? Forms and is contained in the ventricles of the brain; serves as a liquid shock absorber protecting the brain and spianl cord
What is the blood-brain barrier? Choroid plexus capillaries prevent substances(like drugs) from penetrating brain tissue-this makes infections, like meningitis, diffcult to cure.
What is the lumbar puncture? Diagnostic test that invloved the removal of CSF from sipinal canal. The needle puncture is between 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrate.
What is the cerebrum? (adjective is cerebral) Largest part of the brain; divided into R and L lhemispheres by deep groove(longitudinal fissure)
What are convolutions? Elevated folds on the surface of the cerebrum, they increase the surface area of the brain(they are extended).
What is the sulci? Fissure or prooves sepearting cerebral convolutions; divided into four lobes: frontal, pariteal, occipital and temporal.
What is the cerebral function? Conscious thought-consciousness, mental processing, judgement, memory, reasoning, normal speech and will power.
What is diencephalon? LOcated between cerebrum and midbrain; composed of thalamus and hyothalmus;
What are the vital functions of the hypothalamus? Autonomic nervous control; Temperture control; Appetie control; Emontional state; sleep control.
What is the cerebellum? Located behind the pons and below the cerebrum; Second largest part of the brain; composed of two hemispheres; controls all body functions releated to skeletal muscles including: Balance and walking, and muscle tone, and coordination of muscle movements.
What is the brainstem? Made up of three parts: Pons, Medulla, and Midbrain. Pathway for ascending and descending tracts.
What are pons? In front of cerebellum , between midbrai, and medulla- contains center that controls respiration
What is the midbrain? Responsible for hearing and vision.
What is the medulla oblongata? Buld-shaped structure between pons and spinal cord, inside the cranium above foramen magnum; responsible for: heart rate, and blood pressure.
What is the spinal cord? Begins at foramen magnum and continues down to 2nd lumbar vertebrae; white and soft, in spinal cord; surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, functions as-reflex center, and conduction pathway to and from the brain.
What is the peripheral nervous system? All of the nerves of the body and ganglia.
What are nerves? Bundle of nerve fibers(axons)enclosed by connective tissue; Sensory nerves carry impulses to brain and spinal cord; Motor nerves carry impulses to muscles or glands; Mixed nerves contain both sensory and motor fibers.
What are cranial nerves? There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves; begin in the brain; designated by number and name, -olfactory, Optic, Oculomotor, Trochlear, Trigeminal, Abducens, Facial, Vestibulocochlear, Glossopharyngeal, Vagus, Acessory, Hypoglossal.
What are spinal nerves? Originate at spinal cord and go through openings in vertebrae; 31 paris of spinal nerves; all are mixed nerves; named in relation to their location on the spinal cord.
What is meningitis? Any inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord; may be bactrial or viral; Symptoms- headache, fever and stiff neck; in sever form, may lead to paralysis, coma, and death; if bacterial, may be treated with antibiotics.
What is epilephsy? Seizure disorder of the brain, characterized by recurring and excessive discharge from neurons; seizures believed to be result of spontaneous, uncontrolled electrical activity of neurons; cause is uncertain; victim may have hallucinations and seizures.
What is grand mal? Severe, convulsive seizure.
What is petit mal? Milder
What is alzheimer's disease? Progressive disease that begins with problems remembering; nerve endings in cortex of brain degenerate and block signals thatpass between nerve cells; abnormal fibers build up creating tangles; cause is unknown;
What are the stages of alzheimer's disease? First stage(2-4 years): invloves confusion, short-terms memory loss, anxiety, poor judgement; 2nd stage(2-10 years): increase in memory loss, diffculty recognizing people, motor problems, logic problems, and loss of social skills.
What is the 3rd stage of alzheimer's disease? (1-3 years): inability to recognize oneself, weight loss, seizures, mood swings and aphasia.
What is cerebral vascular accident? CVA or stroke. Interruption of blood and O2 to brain leading to tissue death; third leading cause of death in USA.
What are the risk factors for CVA? Smoking, hypertension, hear disease, and family history.
What are the causes of CVA? 90% caused by blood clots. Clots lodge in carotid arteries, blocking the flow of blood to the brain.; 10% caused by ruptured blood vessels in the brain.
What are the causes of CVA? Hemiplegia: paralysis on one side of the body, on the opposite side from the stroke. PARALYSIS:loss of power of motion or sensation. sudden, sever headache, dizziness, sudden loss of vision in one eye; APHASIS: inability to speak or dysphasia, coma, death
What are the treatments for CVA? Get to the hospital immediately, CT done to determine etiolgy, if a clot, treatment aimed at dissolving clot.
What is the prevention of CVA? If TIA's-one aspirn a day, stop smoking, exercise and lose weight, control hypertension.
Created by: Netta16