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CRCT Study Guide

CRCT Study Guide for GA History

The racial violence in Atlanta broke out. After local newspapers wrote false reports about blacks attacking whites. 1906 Atlanta Riot
Delegate from Georgia who signed the U.S. Constitution; known for taking the side of small states and serving on the committee to solve the Great Compromise Abraham Baldwin
President who won the election in 1860. Assassinated at Fords Theatre in D.C. by John Wilkes Booth. Abraham Lincoln
This legislation paid farmers not to plant crops on part of their land to try and drive up the price of crops. This hurt blacks because it only paid property owners. Agricultural Adjustment Act
Creek leader in the Oconee War between the Creek and the GA pioneers; Met with President Washington and signed the Treaty of New York giving up Creek lands east of the Oconee River. Alexander McGillivray
Despite his strong support for GA to remain in the Union, once GA secceded, this man still became the Vice President of the Confederate States of America. Alexander Stephens
After gaining his freedom, he started a chain of barber shops and the Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company. At his death, he was the wealthiest African American in Atlanta. Alonzo Herndon
This was a notorious Confederate prision camp in GA in which the conditions were terrible. There was not enough food, water, or medical supplies, and the only shelter a soilder recived was what he could make on his own. Andersonville
President who signed the Indian Removal Act into law; He refused to follow the Supreme Court decision protecting the rights of the Cherokee Indians. Andrew Jackson
The period before the Civil War. Antebellum
this was the site of the bloodiest one-day battle of the Civil War. Antietam
made up of two flat-topped mountains; TAG corner of the state; smallest region Appalachian Plateau
First prehistoric Native American culture group to make pottery; ate small game animals; horticulture began during this period. Archaic
the first written plan for the government of the United States of America; it created a weak central government and each state received one vote in Congress; There was no executive or judicial branch. Articles of Confederation
black soldier who was seriously wounded in the Battle of Kettle Creek; received land and freedom for his fighting in the Revolutionary War. Austin Dabney
The largest two religious denominations in Georgia leading into the Civil War. Baptist and Methodist
these islands protect Georgia's coast from erosion. Barrier Islands
this battle was important because it was over a southern railroad center; This battle also resulted in a Confederate victory. Battle of Chickamauga
This battle in the Civil War was the turning point of the war. This Union victory ended Robert E. Lee's second invasion of the North. Battle of Gettysburg
first colonial victory in GA during the American Revolution; resulted in much needed weapons and horses. Battle of Kettle Creek
This Marietta factory built B-29 bombers during WWII and created 668 planes during the war. Bell Aircraft
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Bill of Rights
Laws designed to restrict the rights of freedom Black Codes
the strategy by the Union to obstruct or block all Confederate ports. Blockade
this region's mountains trap warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico causing much precipitation in the state. Brasstown Bald, the state's highest point is located here Blue Ridge Mountains
this small, grayish, long-snouted beetle destroyed much of the South's income due to its destruction of King Cotton. Boll Weevil
This civil rights leader was the president of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. He believed economic independence was the only way to social and political equality for blacks. He also gave a famous speech at the ICE of 1895. Booker T. Washington
This term describes three political rulers of the state of GA who were drawn together by power and political goals. They helped GA's economy recover after Reconstruction Bourbon Triumvirate
three men from Georgia to sign the Declaration of Independence. Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton
This Congressman helped expand the U.S. Navy leading up to WWII; he is known as the "Father of the Two Ocean Navy". Carl Vinson
the four people groups who were originally banned from Georgia in its original charter. Catholics, Blacks, Lawyers, Liquor dealers
People having too much debt, overproduction, bank runs, speculating the stock market, and laissez-faire attitude are all examples of this. Causes of the Great Depression
German subs sinking American ships, propaganda, and the Zimmerman telegram are all examples of this. Causes of WWI
The three main reasons for the British settling Georgia. Charity, Economics, and Defense
makes up a majority of Georgia's western border with Alabama Chattahoochee River
this New Deal program provided jobs for people building trails, roads, bridges, hospitals, and recreation facilities. Civilian Conservation Corps
largest agricultural region; occupies 3/5 of the state; many wetlands including the Okefenokee Swamp are here. Coastal Plain
Under this legislation, California entered the Union as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act was passed, and slave trading was no longer allowed in Washington D.C. Compromise of 1850
This Reconstruction plan sought to treat the South like a conquered country. It was much harsher than Lincoln's plan especially on the wealthy Southerners. Congressional Plan
machine invented in GA to help separate the cotton seeds from the cotton fiber. This invention change the agricultural landscape in the South and helped GA develop an economy based on farming Cotton Gin
This system for political primaries gave rural areas more power in voting. county unit system
This involved the discovery of gold in GA and thousands of people moving onto Cherokee land to mine the gold. This ultimately led to the Cherokee losing their land in GA more quickly Dahlonega Gold Rush
contained Preamble, list of grievances against the king, and a statement declaring the colonies' separation from Great Britain Declaration of Independence
The grandfather clause, poll tax, and a literacy test are all examples of this practice of taking away one's voting rights. Disenfranchisement
Court case in which a slave sued for his freedom based on the fact that he had lived in a free state. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the slave could not sue because he was a slave and not a citizen. Dred Scott Case
this occurred in much of GA during the 1920's and ruined most of Georgia's crops that weren't already ruined by the boll weevil. drought
In this presidential election, Abraham Lincoln won despite not receiving a single electoral vote from the South. Election of 1860
inventor of the cotton gin. Eli Whitney
leader of the GA militia in the Battle of Kettle Creek. Elijah Clarke
In this famous document, Lincoln stated that unless the South surrendered, slavery would end. This document was issued five days after the Battle of Antietam. Emancipation Proclamation
This Great Depression GA governor spoke strongly against the New Deal, blacks, and metropolitan areas. Eugene Talmadge
where hilly, mountainous land meets the coastal plain; separates the Piedmont region from the Coastal Plain Fall line
This amendment to the U.S. Constitution gave blacks the right to vote. Fifteenth
This amendment to the U.S. Constitution gave blacks citizenship Fourteenth
This government agency helped former slaves adjust to their new freedom after the Civil War. They offered food, clothing, and other necessities as well as having a focus on education. Freedman’s Bureau
British vs. French and Indians; war over land disputes in the Ohio River Valley; Britain won; led to a huge war debt for the British which led them to tax the colonists. French and Indian War
Top military training bases, textile mills making uniforms, railroads transporting soldiers and supplies to ports, victory gardens, and 3,000 men dying are all examples of this. Georgia Contributions to WWI
Main weakness of this state constitution was the legislature had too much power Georgia Constitution of 1777
this was basically a statement supporting the Compromise of 1850 in Georgia. Georgia Platform
Under this system of land distribution, each white male counted as a "head" of a family and had the "right" to receive up to 1,000 acres. Headright System
second royal governor; increased slavery and the number of merchants in GA; illness forced him to stop being the royal governor. Henry Ellis
He was known as the "voice of the New South". He was managing editor of the Atlanta Constitution, and he sold the concept of the New South to help bring jobs, recognition, and investment in Georgia. Henry Grady
First European explorer to enter GA; in search of gold; main contribution was death of Native Americans through disease and violence Hernando de Soto
known for being good soldiers; they were anti-slavery; settled in Darien, GA and helped Oglethorpe in the Battle of Bloody Marsh. Highland Scots
This lasted three months and was a way to showcase the economic recovery of the South, to highlight the region's natural resources, and to lure northern investors. International Cotton Exposition
response to the Boston Tea Party; Included 1) No town meetings 2) Boston port would be closed until tea could be paid for. 3) Quartering Act 4) British officials charged with a crime would be tried in Great Britain Intolerable Acts
founder of Georgia; wanted to form a colony for the working poor because of his friend's death James Oglethorpe
final royal governor; served until the American Revolution; governor of GA when last of the palisades were completed in Savannah James Wright
these were passed to establish "separate-but-equal" facilities for whites and blacks. This included separate restrooms, water fountains, transportation, and even schools. Jim Crow laws
He was the first President of Atlanta Baptist College (later Morehouse) and was also president of the National Association of Teachers for Colored Schools John Hope
Supreme Court justice who ruled in favor of the Cherokee in the Worcester v. Georgia case. John Marshall
first royal governor; introduced self-government as well as a bicameral legislature; later took self-government away; very unpopular with the people of royal GA. John Reynolds
chief of the Cherokee who took a petition to Congress protesting the Cherokee removal from their land. He wanted the Cherokees protected and the terms of their past treaties to stand. John Ross
This legislation created territorries, but also offered them popular sovereignty on whether or not they would become a free or slave state Kansas-Nebraska Act
secret organization that tried to keep freedmen from exercising their new civil rights. This often involved inflicting terror through beatings or killings. Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
Under this system of land distribution, any white male 21 years old of age or older could buy a chance to win land. Heads of households with children, war veterans, and widows were given extra chances. Land Lottery
policy used by the U.S. at the beginning of WWII to allow Great Britain to borrow or rent weapons. Land lease
A Jewish man was found guilty of the killing of a girl and sentenced to death despite weak evidence. Leo Frank Case
This Reconstruction plan was also known as the 10% Plan. It sought to bring the South back into the Union quickly and involved an oath of allegiance. Lincoln’s Plan
this former capital city of Georgia was modeled after Philadelphia which was then the capital of the United States Louisville
term used to describe people who remained loyal to the king and Great Britain. Loyalist
This well-known civic leader started the Neighborhood Union, which offered vocational classes for children, a health center, and clubs for boys and girls Lugenia Burns Hope
In colonial GA, they were known for being unhappy and contstantly complaining; they did not agree with regulations on slavery, the sale of rum, and ownership of land. Malcontents
served as the translator for Oglethorpe and the Native Americans Mary Musgrove
Most advanced prehistoric native American culture group; wore headdresses and tattoos; palisades and moats show the need for defense during this time. Mississippian
Under this legislation, Maine entered the Union as a free state and Missouri entered as a slave state. This also stipulated that slavery would not be allowed north of Missouri's southern border. Missouri Compromise
These set of programs were designed to bring about economic recovery, relieve the suffering of the unemployed, reform defects in the economy, and improve society. New Deal
legendary war woman of the American Revolution; her most famous account was her tricking and killing of a group of Tories. Nancy Hart
the early 1800's belief that a state could refuse to enforce nullification
largest swamp in North America; this feature is a freshwater Okefenokee Swamp
the oldest prehistoric Native American culture group; hunted large, slow moving animals Paleo
term used to describe people who wanted to break away from the king and Great Britain. Patriot
sneak attack against a U.S. naval base in Hawaii by the empire of Japan on December 7, 1941 causing the U.S. to enter WWII. Pearl Harbor
Most populated region; means "foot of the mountain"; famous GA red clay. Piedmont
This court case involved a man only 1/8 black sitting in a whites only car on a railroad. He sued testing the legality of segregation. The supreme court ruled that segregation was legal. Plessy vs Ferguson
under this concept, when a territory asked for statehood, the people of that territory could vote on whether they wanted to be a free or slave state Popular Sovereignty
forbid colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains; Changed GA's southern border to the St. Mary's River and western border to the Mississippi River. Proclamation of 1763
This mode of transportation was developed prior to the Civil War and was very important to Georgia's war effort as well as its economy after the war. Railroads
She was the 1st woman to serve in the U.S. Senate. She was a leader in the suffrage and temperance movements as well as prison reform Rebecca Lattimer Felton
This U.S. Senator helped bring military bases to GA as well as being known as the "Father of the School Lunch Program". Richard B. Russell
this New Deal program was started when FDR noticed his neighbors had no electricity. It provided loans to farmers' cooperatives to get power to rural areas. Rural Electrification
German Protestants who settled in Ebenezer, GA; they came to escape religious persecution; moved to New Ebenezer because of the poor soil in Ebenezer. Salzburgers
Person who was arrested for refusing to sign an Oath of Allegiance to the Georgia governor while living on Cherokee land. His court case ended up going all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court Samuel Worcester
first settlement in Georgia; it was a city planned around open squares Savannah
location of 2 deep water ports in GA; also shipyards built "Liberty ships" at these 2 locations during WWII. Savannah and Brunswick
makes up a majority of Georgia's eastern border. Oglethorpe and GA's first settlers settled on the Yamacraw Bluff overlooking this river. Savannah River
inventor of the Cherokee syllabary which made it possible for the Cherokee to write and read in their own language making them the Cherokee the first Indians to have their own language in written form Sequoyah
Under this system of farming, the landowners provided land, a house, farming tools, animals, seed, and fertilizer. The farmer provided the labor and gave a high percentage of the crop to the landowner Sharecropping
In this brutal military campaign, the North destroyed all military targets and the civilian economic system that supported the Confederacy all the way from Atlanta to Savannah Sherman's March to Sea
the most significant result of this skirmish and siege was the British remaining in control of Savannah during the American Revolution Siege of Savannah
the major type of labor used on GA's plantations before the Civil War. Slavery
the purpose of this New Deal program was to create a system of retirement and unemployment insurance. Social Security
the main threat to Georgia came from this group of people in Florida. Spanish
main purpose of these in the barrier islands was to convert Indians to Catholcism. Spanish Missions
tax on newspapers, legal documents, licenses, and even playing cards; GA was the only colony to sell the stamps; Its biggest impact on GA was the GA Gazette had to stop being published. Stamp Act
the belief that the state's interests should take precedence over the interests of the national government States’ Rights
Under this system of farming, the farmer owned their own tools, animals, and equipment. They also bought the seed and fertilizer. They either paid the landowner a set amount of money or set portion of the crop Tenant Farming
This amendment to the U.S. Constitution abolished slavery. Thirteenth
This Georgia populist leader called on black and white farmers to unite in an effort to gain fair treatment from the state and national government. He was also responsible for introducing the Rural Free Delivery bill while in Congress. Tom Watson
Chief of the Yamacraws who had a good relationship with Oglethorpe and helped them settle along the Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River. Tomchichi
The removal of the Cherokee from Georgia westward to present day Oklahoma; Nearly 1/3 of the Indians died on this journey Trail of Tears
Geographic region known for manufacturing and textile industries Valley and Ridge
This civil rights leader believed the "Talented Tenth" of the African American population could serve as leaders for all other African Americans. W.E.B. DuBois
Georgia city visited by FDR many times; sit of the "Little White House" and the location of FDR's death Warm Springs
delegate from GA who signed the U.S. Constitution; his last name means a small amount. William Few
Creek leader who signed the Treaty of Indian Springs ceding all Creek land in GA to the government; This signing led to his brutal killing by Creek Indians who did not agree with him William McIntosh
the Union commander in the battle for Atlanta as well as the March to the Sea from Atlanta to Savannah. William T. Sherman
Prehistoric native American culture group that invented the bow and arrow; mound builders; lived in dome-shaped huts. Woodland
U.S. Supreme Court decision in which John Marshall ruled that Cherokee territory was not subject to state law. Although it was thought to be a victory for the Cherokee, the state of GA and even the President refused to follow the decision. Worcester v. Georgia
scandal that took place in GA where the governor and some legislators were bribed to sell public land to land companies at below-market value. Yazoo land fraud
Created by: JuneMcKinnie