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Disabilities

WGU Foundations of Teaching

TermDescription, etc.
Learning Disability (LD) Disorder in one or more basic psychological processes involved in understanding/using spoken and/or written language = imperfect ability to listen, think, read, write, spell, or do math calculations.
Characteristics of LD (may not have all) Normal intelligence; discrepancy between intelligence & performance; delays in achievement; poor motor coordination/spatial ability; perceptual anomalties; difficulty w/self-motivation; etc.
Working with students with learning disabilities one-to-one tutoring for reading; early elementary = phonetic reading strategies; teach learning-to-learn skills (study skills, test-taking skills, etc.); give frequent feedback; break down large projects into smaller chunks; effective classroom management
Emotional and Behavior Disorders (EBD) Serious/Persistent age-inappropriate behaviors resulting in social conflict, as well as problems in school and personal concept. Caused by make-up of the child, family disfunction/mistreatment, and/or underlying learning disability.
Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Educational performance markedly and adversely affected over a period of time by: inability to build/maintain satisfacory interpersonal relationships; inappropriate types of behavior/feelings; general unhappiness; etc.
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD) Difficulty in maintaining attention because of limited ability to concentrate accompanied by impulsive actions/hyperactive behavior = may have marked academic, behavior, and social problems stemming from inability to pay attention.
Working with students with ADHD make sure student understands classroom rules/procedures; seat ADHD students in close proximity to you; understand student may not be able to control her behavior (not defiant); allow student opportunities to be active; use daily report cards
Autism Developmental disability affecting social interactions, verbal/nonverbal communication, and educational performance. Generally evident before the age of 3 years.
Characteristics of Autism (those a child exhibits depends on form/severity of autism) extremely withdrawn; engage in self-stimulating activities (rocking, etc.); might have normal/outstanding abilitities in some areas; resistant to changes in the environment/routine; more prevalent among boys
Language Disorders Impairment in student's ability to understand language (receptive language disorder) or to express ideas (expressive language disorder) in one's native language. If not result of physical problem/lack of experience, indicates a LD or mental retardation.
Speech Disorders Oral articulation problems; occur most frequently among children in early elementary grades.
Working with students with speech disorders display acceptance of student; never finish student's sentence or allow others to do so; don't put student in high-pressure situation in which they must respond quickly in a verbal manner.
Vision Impairments Degree of uncorrectable inability to see - 1 out of every 1,000 children are blind (vision = 20/200 or worse in the better eye) or visually imapired between 20/70 and 20/200 in the better eye).
Possible signs of vision loss Child often tilts head/rubs eyes; has eyes that are red, inflamed, crusty, or water excessively; has trouble reading small print/can't discriminate letters; complains of dizziness/headaches after reading.
Asperger's Syndrome Mild form of autism; may have concomitant learning disabilities and/or poor motor skills.
Characteristics of Asperger's Syndrome easily memorize facts but has limited understanding of them; highly verbal with poor verbal/nonverbal communication skills; have a set way of doing things; experience extreme anxiety when routine is changed/expectations are not met; sensitive to sounds
Mental Retardation Refers to substantial limitations in present functioning - manifests before the age of 18.
Characteristics of Mental Retardation sub-average intellectual functioning existing concurrently with related limitations in 2 or more of the following: communication; self-care; home living; social skills; community use; self-direction; health/safety; functional academics; leisure; work.
Down Syndrome Chromosomal - have 47 chromosomes instead of 46; TRISOMY 21 - the extra chromosome attaches to the 21st pair
Characteristics of Down Syndrome Mild to moderate mental retardation (some exceptions); may have heart defects, hearing loss, intestinal malformation, vision problems; increased risk for thyroid problems, leukemia, & Alzheimer disease
Physical Characteristics of Down Syndrome upper-slant eyes; short stature; flat nose; somewhat smaller ears/nose; enlarged, sometimes protruding tongue; short fingers; reduced muscle tones; single (Simean) crease across palm of the hand
Fragile X Syndrome Chromosomal - deficiency in the structure of the X chromosome; affects one in 750 males and one in 1,250 females; appears to be associated with autism/disorders of attention
Physical Characteristics of Fragile X Syndrome long, narrow face; large ears' prominent forehead; large head circumference; testicles enlarged at puberty in males
Characteristics of Fragile X Syndrome about 1/3 of affected girls have mild retardation/learning disability; may exhibit attention disorders, self-stimulatory behaviors, and speech/language problems
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) estimated one in 500-700 babies born each year with some degree of alcohol-related damage/defect- alcohol can damage the central nervous system of fetus and brain damage is not uncommon.
Physical characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome facial abnormalities; heart defects; low birth weight; motor dysfunctions
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome could result in . . . mild to moderate mental retardation; attention disorders; behavioral problems
Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAE) Less severe, more subtle forms of alcohol-related damage.
Orthopedic Impairments Can be a congenital anomaly (e.g., club foot, etc.); an impairment caused by disease (e.g., polio, etc.); or impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputation, etc.) that adversely affects a student's educational performance.
Other Health Impairments Student has limited strength, vitality, or alertness that results in limited alertness due to chronic/acute health problems (e.g., heart condition, diabetes, etc.) that can adversely affect student's academic performance
Deafness and Hard of Hearing Hearing ability is of little use, even with the use of a hearing aid = cannot use hearing as primary source for accessing information.
Deaf-Blindness Concomitant hearing and visual impairments which cause severe communication & other developmental/learning needs that student can't be educated in special education programs for students with hearing impairmenets/severe disabilities effectively.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) An acquired injury to the brain caused by external physical force, resulting in a total/partialfunctional disability, psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a student's educational performance.
Created by: gdglgrl on 2007-09-15



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