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Basic Anatomy

Anatomy Study of structure and shape of the body.
Physiology Study of functions of the body. Structure determines function.
1: Chemical Level Atoms
2: Cellular Level Cells
3: Tissue Level Tissues
4: Organ Level Organs
5: Organ Systems Skin, cardiovascular
6: Organism Shoop, etc.
Integumentary System: Includes Skin, hair and nails.
Integumentary System: Function Waterproofs the body, cushions and protects, excretion (sweat and tears). Regulates body temp. Pain, pressure and temp. receptors located here.
Skeletal System: Includes Bones, cartilages, ligaments and joint.
Skeletal System: Function Support and protect organs, provides framework for muscles, stores minerals. Blood cells are formed in bones.
Muscular System: Includes Skeletal, cardiac, smooth, muscle
Muscular System: Function Allows body to move. Facial expressions, posture, produces heat.
Nervous System: Includes Brain, spinal column, nerves, and sensory receptors.
Nervous System: Function Control system of body, responds to changing environment. Detects changes inside and outside the body.
Endocrine System: Includes Pituitary, thyroid, parapthyroid, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries and testes glands.
Endocrine System: Function Maintain homeostasis, secrete hormones.
Cardiovascular System: Includes Heart, blood vessels.
Cardiovascular System: Function Blood vessels transport blood throughout the body. Heart pumps blood.
Lymphatic System: Includes Lymph nodes, Lymphatic vessels, spleen, tonsils.
Lymphatic System: Function Cleans the body and blood. Immune cells found here.
Respiratory System: Includes Larynx, lungs, pharynx, trachea, nasal passages, bronchi.
Respiratory System: Function Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
Digestive System: Includes Esophagus, stomach, mouth, intestines, rectum.
Digestive System: Function Breaks down food into usable units for energy. Ends with excrement.
Urinary System: Includes Kidneys, bladder, ureters and urethra.
Urinary System: Function Eliminate waste from body. Regulates water and salt balance of blood.
Reproductive: Includes Testes, penis, ovaries, uterus, vagina.
Reproductive: Function Production of offspring.
Things we NEED to survive Water, Oxygen, Appropriate body temp., Nutrients, Atmospheric pressure, Homeostasis.
Homeostasis Maintenance of a stable internal environment.
Homeeostatic Imbalance A disturbance resulting in disease.
Negative Feedback Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms. Shuts off original stimulus, or reduces its intensity.
Positive Feedback Increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther. Blood clotting, birth of a baby.
Anatomical Position Standing erect with palms facing forward.
Superior Towards head/above.
Inferior Towards feet/below.
Anterior/Ventral Front.
Posterior/Dorsal Back.
Medial Towards the middle.
Lateral Towards the outside.
Proximal Closer to point of origin.
Distal Further from point of origin.
Superficial On the surface.
Deep Away from surface, internal.
Body Plane: Median Divides the body into left and right parts.
Body Plane: Frontal Divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
Body Plane: Transverse Divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
Cranial Cavity Brain
Spinal Cavity Spinal Chord.
Thoracic Heart, lungs, etc.
Abdominal Digestive
Pelvic Urinary and reproductive.
Created by: UtauxIkuto