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PHI 302 Chapter 6

Furbush PHI 302 Chapter 6

Determinism (or universial causion) For every effect, event, or occurance in reality, a cause or cause exits
Religious determinism (predestination) the theory that if God is all-powerful and all-knowing, he must have predestined everything that occurs
Problems with Religious Determinism *How do you prove God exists? *Why bother with the religion's moral code? *Most salvation theories require free will
Scientific Determinism (Phyical) Newton said that everything in physical in nature and is determined by natural laws, like the law of gravity
Problems with scientific (physical) determinism *natural laws state probabilities, not certainities *Modern physics has raised doubts about Newton's Physics
Biological & Genetic Deteriminism Human nbeings are totally determined by their genetic makeup (our DNA) over which we have no control
Problem with Biological or genetic determinism *reduce human beings to strictly the physical--no possibility of a mental or spiritual side
Nature vs. Nurture Is our behavior determined by our DNA or our suuroundings?
Social-Cultural Determinism Humans are completely determined by their past and present history and cultures
Problems with Social-Cultural Determinism *Difficult to prove an absolute mind that exists without a body *Other theories of history are just as plausible
Economic Determinism Karl Marz believed that humans are determined by economic struggles that will lead to a classless society
Problems with Economic Determinism *Other theories can equally be true *Non-economic influences exist
Psychological Determinism (Freud) Based on Freud's work--humans are effected by our unconcious drives & attempts to repress them Problem:too general to be based in fact
Psychological Deteriminism (BF Skinner) Humans are physical beings who actions are determined by external stimului Problem: based on completely materialistic view of humans & too general May be true for some situations but not all
Fatalism belief that all events are fixed and predetermined and humans cannot alter them in any way
Hard Determinism theory that all events are caused outside of the control of humans
Soft Determinism maintains that there is universial causion but they believe some of these causes starts in humans giving humans some freedom and control
Indeterminism There is a certain amount of freedom--not everything is caused; William James beieves that our striving for good illustrated some human freedom
Problems with Indeterminism *based on wishful thinking *little evidence that uncaused things exist *based more on chance than human freedom
Problem of Hard Determinsim *does not take into account the complexity of humans *Humans are creative and not passive receivers of life
Arguement for Soft Determinism *allows us to assign moral responsibility to humans
Created by: sfurbush