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The Eye and Ear

Chabner, Language of Medicine 8th Edition, Chpt 17 Vocabulary

accommodation normal adjustment of the eye to focus on objects from far to near
anterior chamber area behind hte cornea and in front of the lens and iris. it contains aqueous humor.
aqueous humor fluid produced by the ciliary body and found in the anterior chamber
biconvex having two sides that are rounded, elevated, and curved evenly, like part of a sphere
choroid middle, vascular layer of the eye, between the retina and the sclera
ciliary body structure on each side of the lens that connects the choroid and iris. It contains ciliary muscles, which control the shape of the lens, and it secretes aqueous humor.
cone photoreceptor cell in the retina that transforms light energy into a nerve impulse. responsible for color and central vision
conjunctiva delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball
cornea fibrous trnsparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball
fovea centralis tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision
fundus of the eye posterior, inner part of the eye
iris colored pigmented membrane surrounding the pupil of the eye
lens transparent, biconvex body behind the pupil of the eye. it bends (refracts) light rays to bring them into focus on the retina
macula yellowish region on the retina lateral to and slightly below the optic disc; contains fovea centralis, which is the area of clearest vision
optic chiasm point at which optic nerve fibers cross in the brain
optic disc region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina. it is the blind spot of the eye because it contains only nerve fibers, no rods or cones, and is thus insensitive to light
optic nerve cranial nerve carrying impulses from the retina to the brain (cerebral cortex)
pupil dark opening of the eye, surrounded by the iris, through which light rays pass
refraction bending of light rays by the cornea, lens, and fluids of the eye to bring the rays into focus on the retina
retina light-sensitive nerve cell layer of the eye containing photoreceptor cells (rods & cones)
rod photoreceptor cell of the retina essential for vision in dim light and for peripheral vision
sclera tough, white outer coat of the eyeball
thalamus relay center of the brain. optic nerve fibers pass through here on their way to the cerebral cortex
vitreous humor soft, jelly-like material behind the lens in the vitreous chamber; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball
astigmatism defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye
hyperopia (hypermetropia) farsightedness
myopia nearsightedness
presbyopia impairment of vision as a result of old age
cataract clouding of the lens, causing decreased vision
chalazion small, hard, cystic mass (granuloma) on the eyelid; formed as a result of chronic inflammation of a sebaceous gland along the margin of the eyelid
diabetic retinopathy retinal effects of diabetes mellitus include microaneurysms, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, and neovascularization
glaucoma increased intraocular pressure results in damage to the retina and optic nerve with loss of vision
hordeolum (stye) localized, purulent, inflammatory staphylococcal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid
macular degeneration progessive damage to the macula of the retina
nystagmus repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes
retinal detachment two layers of the retina separate from each other
strabismus abnormal deviation of the eye
esotropia one eye turns inward; cross-eyed
exotropia one eye turns outward; wall-eyed
hypertropia upward deviation of one eye
hypotropia downward deviation of one eye
amblyopia partial loss of vision or lazy eye
diplopia double vision
auditory canal channel that leads from the pinna to the eardrum
auditory meatus auditory canal
auditory nerve fibers carry impulses from the inner ear to the brain (cerebral cortex), these fibers compose the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII)
auditory tube channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx; eustachain tube
auricle flap of the ear; the protruding part of the external ear, or pinna
cerumen waxy substance secreted by the external ear; also called ear wax
cochlea snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear; contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells
endolymph fluid within the labyrinth of the inner ear
eustachian tube auditory tube
incus second ossicle (bone) of the middle ear; means anvil
labyrinth maze-like series of canals of the inner ear
malleus first ossicle of the middle ear; means hammer
organ of Corti sensitive auditory receptor area found in the cochlea of the inner ear
ossicle small bone of the ear
oval window membrane between the middle ear and the inner ear
perilymph fluid contained in the labyrinth of the inner ear
pinna auricle; flap of the ear
semicircular canals passages in the inner ear associated with maintaining equilibrium
stapes third ossicle of the middle ear. means stirrup
tympanic membrane membrane between the outer and middle ear; also called the eardrum
vestibule central cavity of the labyrinth, connecting thhe semicircular canals and the cochlea. contains two structures, the saccule and utricle, that help maintain equilibrium
acoustic neuroma benign tumor arising from the acoustic vestibulocochlear nerve in the brain
cholesteatoma collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac within thhe middle ear
deafness loss of the ability to hear
Meniere disease disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear; elevated endolymph pressure within the cochlea and semicircular canals
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
suppurative otitis media invasion of bacteria in the middle ear, pus formation occurs
serous otitis media noninfectious inflammation with accumulation of serous fluid
otosclerosis hardening of the bony tissue of the middle ear
tinnitus sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling, booming) in the ears
vertigo sensation of irregular or whirling motion either of oneself or of external objects
aphakia absence of the lens of the eye
Created by: megaly ryan