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AP Env.Sci. Chp. 8

QuestionAnswer
acid precipitation acid rain, acid hail, acid snow; all of which occur as a result of pollution in the atmosphere.
acute effect the effect caused by a short exposure to a high level of toxin.
catalytic converter a platinum-coated device that oxidizes most of the VOCs and some of the CO that would otherwise be emitted in exhaust, converting them to CO2.
closed-loop recycling When materials, such as plastic or aluminum, are used to rebuild the same product. An example of this is the use of the aluminum from aluminum cans to produce more aluminum cans.
Composting a process that allows the organic material in solid waste to be decomposed and reintroduced into the soil, often as fertilizer.
building-related illness when the signs and symptoms of an illness can be attributed to a specific infectious organism that resides in the building.
chronic effect an effect that results from long-term exposure to low levels of toxin.
deep well injection drilling a hole in the ground that's below the water table to hold waste.
disease occurs when infection causes a change in the state of health.
dose-response analysis a process in which an organism is exposed to a toxin at different concentrations, and the dosage that causes the death of the organism is recorded.
dose-response curve the result of graphing a dose-response analysis.
ED50 the point at which 50 percent of the test organisms show a negative effect from a toxin.
global warming an intensification of the Greenhouse Effect due to the increased presence of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere.
gray smog (industrial smog) smog resulting from emissions from industry and other sources of gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels, especially coal.
hazardous waste any waste that poses a danger to human health; it must be dealt with in a different way from other types of waste.
heat islands urban areas that heat up more quickly and retain heat better than nonurban areas.
high-level radioactive waste radioactive wastes that produce high levels of ionizing radiation.
Infection the result of a pathogen invading a body.
LD50 the point at which 50 percent of the test organisms die from a toxin.
leachate low-level radioactive waste—radioactive wastes that produce low levels of ionizing radiation.
noise pollution any noise that causes stress or has the potential to damage human health.
non-point source pollution pollution that does not have a specific point of release.
open-loop recycling when materials are reused to form new products.
ozone holes the thinning of the ozone layer over Antarctica (and to some extent, over the Arctic).
pathogen bacteria, virus, or other microorganisms that can cause disease.
photochemical smog usually formed on hot sunny days when NOx compounds, VOCs, and ozone combine to form smog with a brownish hue.
point source pollution a specific location from which pollution is released; an example of a point source location is a factory where wood is being burned.
poison any substance that has an LD50 of 50 mg or less per kg of body weight.
physical treatment in a sewage treatment plant, the initial filtration that is done to remove debris such as stones, sticks, rags, toys, and other objects that were flushed down the toilet.
primary pollutants pollutants that are released directly into the lower atmosphere.
primary treatment when physically treated sewage water is passed into a settling tank, where suspended solids settle out as sludge; chemically treated polymers may be added to help the suspended solids separate and settle out.
risk assessment calculating risk, or the degree of likelihood that a person will become ill upon exposure to a toxin or pathogen.
risk management using strategies to reduce the amount of risk (the degree of likelihood that a person will become ill upon exposure to a toxin or pathogen).
secondary pollutants pollutants that are formed by the combination of primary pollutants in the atmosphere.
secondary treatment the biological treatment of wastewater in order to continue to remove biodegradable waste.
sick building syndrome a condition in which the majority of a building’s occupants experience certain symptoms that vary with the amount of time spent in the building, without being able to identify a specified cause or illness.
sludge the solids that remain after the secondary treatment of sewage.
sludge processor a tank filled with aerobic bacteria that’s used to treat sewage.
solid waste can consist of hazardous waste, industrial solid waste, or municipal waste. Many types of solid waste provide a threat to human health and the environment.
stationary sources non-moving sources of pollution, such as factories. the liquid that percolates to the bottom of a landfill.
Superfund Program a program funded by the federal government and a trust that's funded by taxes on chemicals; identifies pollutants and cleans up hazardous waste sites.
threshold dose the dosage level of a toxin at which a negative effect occurs.
toxicity the degree to which a substance is biologically harmful.
toxin any substance that is inhaled, ingested, or absorbed at dosages sufficient to damage a living organism.
tropospheric ozone ozone that exists in the trophosphere.
U.S. Noise Control Act gave the EPA power to set emission standards for major sources of noise, including transportation, machinery, and construction.
vector the carrier organism through which pathogens can attack, such as a tick.
wastewater any water that has been used by humans. This includes human sewage, water drained from showers, tubs, sinks, dishwashers, washing machines, water from industrial processes, and storm water runoff.
Waste-to-Energy (WTE) program when the energy released from waste incineration is used to generate electricity.
Created by: pinetreeacademy on 2012-03-14



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