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Film 25B Midterm

Film 25B Midterm Terms

Test Answer 1
Fascist propaganda films Germany: Triumph of the Will and Olympia created by Leni Riefenstahl. "Attacking of the Enemies" films: most notorious one Jud Suss 40, Veit Harlan.
reactions to the rise of Fascism in European and Soviet cinema
pre-war and wartime leftist/political documentary filmmaking many experimental filmmakers shifted their focus to opposing to the rise of fascism. Joris Ivens made "Spanish Earth" in reaction to Spanish civil war and "the 400 million" in repsonse to Chinese civil war.
Socialist Realism Doctrine of Socialist Realism (1935). Changed style and content of Soviet film, only allowing films that propagated communist ideology, depicting life “truthfully” in “its revolutionary development”. Easy to understand by the common masses. Ended Montage.
French Poetic Realism popular in 1930s. doomed relationships, atmospheric settings, suicides as endings. jean renoir and rene clair main directors
Popular Front films Threat of fascism brought together communist and socialist to form this group. Created a group Ciné- Liberté. Themes of working class and deals sympathetically if pessimistically with working-class heroes
British mogul Alexander Korda Hungarian émigré, A producer in Britain who founded London Film Productions in 32, first film produced was The Private Life of Henry the VIII 33, highly successful film.
post-WWII trends in American cinema burst of consumer spending - 1946 set box office record of 1.5 billion. Soon after americans began buying TVs, to compete with this firms were forced to make higher budget films. Employed vidid color technology to draw in audience
the Paramount Decision US vs. Paramount et. al - gov't accused big 5 & little 3 of of violating antitrust laws by monopolizing film industry. all found guilty. big 5 sold off theatre chains. banned blockbooking. result = uniform movie prices.
HUAC, the blacklist, the “Red Scare,” House Un-american Activities Committee - investigated communist activities in US. hearing left legacy of distrust and wasted talent. Producers blacklisted suspected communist sympathizers.
the emergence of film noir derived from american detective fiction of 20s. low key lighting, somer mood. peaked in 1940s and 50s.
competition from television TV largely took over newsreels and animation. film production declined and box office receipts fell until 1963
the “flight to the suburbs,” After war Americans had enough money to move to suburbs. With children no inclination to travel to the city where theaters were. Watch TV instead, by 1960 90% of homes have TV. People are more selective about movies.
new technologies in American cinema such as widescreen, Technicolor and 3-D technicolor: elaborate 3 strip dye transfer process perfected in 1930s. widescreen: after 1954 hollywood films designed to be shown in wider format, required bigger screens and better projection. 3-D: stereoscopic, required 2 strips of film 1 over another
“upscaling genres,” Commitment to big pictures offered market for science fiction films
the rise of the independents (stars, writer-directors, and producers) after Paramoutn decision individual films became more important, which increased independent production. Examples: David O Selznick, Agent Lew Wasserman of MCA clients included: Bette Davis, Mary Pickford, Mae West, MArx Brothers, Alfred Hitchcock.
exploitation films theaters showing double feature needed inexpensive films, demand was met by independents. made low-budget, bizarre, horror, sceince fiction or erotic films. main director=Edward Wood
the postwar trends in German, French, British, Japanese, and Soviet cinemas
cases of collaboration with the Nazis Nazis gained control by buying controlling shares in industry, instated UFA, still imported films from US and France
the Cold War initiated soon after WWII, world became polarized between US & USSR, brought about HUAC hearings, red scare, etc.
post-colonialism and neo-colonialism post-colonialism: colonies gaining independence either through negotiation or uprising neo-colonialism: long history of exploitation means that big countries had money in these smaller countries- a new way of imperialism
the artisanal mode of filmmaking A filmmaker, producer, and crew devote their energy to making a single film, often with no expectation of collaborating on another project in the future; stands in contrast to mass production and division of labor in studio production
the US occupation of Japan mandates Westernizing and democratizing; hundreds of films banned and burned if they contained “feudalistic” and “nationalistic” content; encourage depictions of democratic themes; the domestic industry still kept firm control of the market
“jidai-geki” and “gendai-geki,” Jidai-geki = Period Drama, gendai-geki = Contemporary drama
“Papas Kino,” West germany - some filmmakers of Nazi era still permitted to work - continuity with fascist era & culture that it spawned was attacked by young directors of 1960s, deemed it "paps kino/cinema"
“quota quickies”/"chasers" 27 British Gov passes Quota act: required distributors make a certain percentage of British films available, theaters devote a certain amount of screen time to the films. plan to rise to 20% by 37. Results: Cheap, short films, barely met legal standards.
protectionist measures late 40s/50s- European countries adopt certain protective measures against US films including: film quotas, taxes on films that come from the states, government loans and subsidies, and prizes offered to best screenplays
Ealing Studios Michael Balcon took over associated pictures, renames it Ealing studios in 38. Known for small scale quality films, especially "Ealing Comedies."
rubble films a literal examination of trying to survive in an urban environment post world war. An example is Rossellini’s film, Year Zero
Italian Neo-realism 1945-51. after mussolini, film industry lost organization. Neorealism emerged as force for cultural and social change. dealt with contemporary social problems. employed nonprofessional actors natural light on location shooting unresolved endings etc
“rosy Neo-realism,” maintained neorealist aesthetic, films melded working-class characters with 1930s comedy
auteur theory
the journal Cahiers du Cinema Andre Bazin and Truffaut were writers for this Magazine. 54 article by Truffaut attacked tradition of quality . This article is mistranslated by Sarris as auteur theory.
film festivals Mussolini held 1st festival in Venice 1932-40. revived in 1946, sprang up all over the world. helped define publics conception of advanced european cinema
arthouse cinemas
film archiving
the “Tradition of Quality,” France, big-budget features, usually adaptations, classically trained actors, shot on a set, elaborate costumes, lighting, criticized by young critics of the Cahier
critic Andre Bazin
the international art cinema
characteristics of modernist art cinema
the decline of the studio system
“freezes” and “thaws” in the Soviet Union and its satellite countries
documentary realism
Method acting taught by Stanislavsky's moscow art theatre. actor needed to ground performance in personal experiences. utilized improvisation. amin director of Method - Elia Kazan. Marlon Brando gave prototype Method performance in "On the Waterfront"
postwar Japanese cinema SCAP reviewed productions for "feudalistic" and "nationalistic" content. Encourage democratic films and "modernization", women's rights and kissing scenes. Rapid recovery and expansion. Firm hold on domestic market.
the crumbling of the Production Code of Censorship Rossellini's film The Miracle, denied exhibition permit in 48. In 52 Supreme Court declared films covered by first amendment, free speech. Paramount Decision, theaters choose what to exhibit. Rise of TV, movies can be more daring in order to compete.
“de-Stalinization” Stalin dies March 53. Power struggle for 5 years, carries Khrushchev to leadership. The "Thaw", the "cult of personality" films that praised Stalin, were denounced. A trend toward humanism.
The studio system of production Assembly line, less emphasis on creative artistic expression. Everything is broken up into departments.
Vertical Integration The studios own production facilities, distribution companies, and theaters. Last until 1948 when the "Paramount decision" deemed this practice monopolistic.
Block Booking Distributor forces exhibitors to rent several films in order to get the most desirable ones. Made illegal after "Paramount Decision"
The classical Hollywood filmmaking style narratively driven. "The story is all"; "invisible editing". Two parts to story: goal driven and love story.
the star and genre systems
the transition to sound cumbersome cameras limited movement, omnidirectional mics picked up everything, studios needed to be outfitted, overnight acting revolution, language barrier, expensive technology - all issues of sound transition
the emergence of the gangster film, screwball comedy, and the musical all genres that arose/popularized by invention of sound. revolved around aspects of the depression.
the Production Code of Censorship (aka the Hayes Code) Put in place in 34. Named after Will Hayes. The Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA). Outside pressure pushed the MPPDA to create the code,moral standards governing depiction of crime, sex, violence. Seal of approval, or 25 K fi
the impact of the rise of Fascism/the Axis Powers on the French, German, Soviet, British, and Japanese film industries (I'm splitting these up into separate categories, Nathan) The rise of fascism and global conflict (civil wars in China and Spain) pushed many filmmakers, particularly leftists, to politicize their work.
The "Big Five" 1. Paramount 2. MGM 3. 20th Century Fox 4. Warner Bros 5. RKO.
The "Little Three" 1. Universal 2.United Artists 3. Columbia.
Poverty Row Disney, Goldwyn, Republic and Monogram: inexpensive B pictures.
The Transition to Sound First sound pic, Don Jaun 25, only score and fx. Jazz Singer first talkie oct. 6 1927. The transition was very difficult, Omni Directional mics. Camera's placed in sound proof boxes. All sounds had to be recorded on set, including music.
Soviet Montage Soviet editing technique. Emphasizes dynamic, often discontinuous, relationships between shots.
The Early Talkies First talkie, Jazz singer, 27. First all talking picture, Lights of New York 28. Broadway Melody 29 "All talking, all dancing, all singing."
Depression on American Film Creation of the concession stand, double feature, and prize give aways. Gov't began sponsoring documentaries to inform americans about depression. Pare Lorentz "the Plow that Broke the Plain" (1936) explained how dust bowl contributed to depression.
Gangster Film Derived from organized crime culture that developed during Prohibition. Protagonists all die violently in the end. Producers argue that these films show that Crime does not pay.
Musical Revue musical: Simply strung numbers together. Backstage Musical: focuses on the aspect of producing a number. Operetta musical: fantasy locales. Integrated Musical: Singing and dancing occur in ordinary settings.
Screwball Comedy Eccentric romantic couples are at the center of the story, this genre typically uses slapstick.
French Industry (Rise of Fascism) PFC (communist part of france) and Socialist join to create Popular Front. Form Cine-Liberte to make films and publish a magazine. Renoir was one a member.
Jidai-geki Historical Films, usually involves Samurai or Ronin (a samurai without a lord).
Gendai-geki Contemporary life film.
Britain (rise of Fascism) British documentaries switch from class struggle to opposing fascism.
Japan (rise of Fascism) 39 Motion Picture Law modeled on Goebbels edicts to the Nazi industry. No questioning of authority, duty to emperor or love of family. Patriotic films support war effort. Later in war films celebrate Kamikaze raids.
Yasujiro Ozu Worked for Sochiku. Quite and insistant. Master of editing, moves in circle, 45% to 45%. Static closely framed shots, Tatami shot. Comedies and shomin-geki, humor in his films. First talkie, 36 "The Silent Son." cumulative style.
Shomin-geki Films about lower class life.
Kenji Mizoguchi Began at Nikkatsu, then freelance. Temper which would explode into tantrums. Known for long shots, long takes, camera movement. Melo dramas focused on psychological.
Alfred Hitchcock Known fot thrillers. Strengths, framing and editing shots, POV stylistic choice of his. His method allows the audience to grasp what characters are thinking. Sabotage 35.
Alexander Korda Hungarian émigré, founded London Film Productions in 32. First film The Private Life of Henry the VIII, breakthrough for British industry. Did a number of expensive "costume films".
Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger Formed the Archers production firm in 43. Pressburger scripted 49th Parallel, Nazi infiltrators, unusual, portrays the Nazis as fallible individuals. 1st Archer film: The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp 43. Critical of Gov and policy of fair play.
Japan Prior to World War II 23 earthquake levels tokyo, western rebuild. Japan models the Hollywood film system and succeeds very well. Three major Film Studios: Nikkatsu, Shochiku and Toho (formed in 41). Rule in Japanese system, director a huge amount of autonomy.
Charlie Chaplin able to make silent films with only musical effects longer than anyone else in Hollywood
Ingmar Bergman Swedish, came from theatre. poured dreams, memories, guilts and fantasies into his films. used deep focus and long takes for scenes with intense psychological reflections
Luis Bunuel began as surrealist. moved to modernist experiments in 1960s. audiences found him entertaining. non-distinctive style.
Akira Kurosawa began during WWII but easily adapted to occupation policies. most influential asian director in film history.
Federico Fellini recurring characters, autobiographical, a lot of symbolism, important sense of protagonist (fellini)
Antonioni made pessimistic, cerebral films. signed with MGM, master of deep focus and long take
Robert Bresson small body of work. credible during tradition of quality, heavy religious influence
Jacques Tati performer as well as director, became international celebrity. films lacked strong plots. one of cinemas great "clowns"
Frank Capra Columbia's most important director. prominent Screwball comedy director.
John Grierson Scottish, influenced shift toward documentary in UK. member of GPO film unit, highly prolific. believed in the educational documentary
Pare Lorentz young intellectual given grant to make first film "the Plow the Broke the Plains" (documentary)
Vittorio de Sica comedian who moved to film when sound came along. mainstream romantic comedy. became major neorealist director - directed Bicycle Thieves
John Ford famous for his postwar westerns, "the searchers" "the Quiet Man"
Rossellini interested in psychological effects of war and recovery. made "war trilogy" attempted to revive humanism in what seemed to be a decaying society.
Luchino Visconti born aristocrat, acknowledged his homosexuality, took up left wing causes. also worked in opera.
Singin' in the Rain Directors: Stanley Donen, Gene Kelly.
Sabotage Directed: Alfred Hitchcock. Produced by Gaumont British.
An Airman's Letter to His Mother Directed: Michael Powell.
Grand Illusion Directed: Jean Renoir.
Bicycle Thieves Directed: Vittorio De Sica. One of the Writers: Cesare Zavattini. Example of Italian Neorealism.
Rashomon Directed: Akira Kurosawa. Rashomon means place between life and death.
Types of Socialist Realism Films Civil War Films Biographical Films: As long as parallels could be drawn between Stalin Tales of Everyday Heroes Socialist Musicals
Created by: 100002920085331