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Pshycology 101

Mastering the World of Psychology Chapter 1

SQ3R Survey Question Read Recite Review
Psychology Is defined as the scientific study of behavior and mental process
Scientific Method The orderly systematic procedures that researchers follow as they identify a problem, design a study to investigate the problem, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions and communicate their findings
Theory A general principal or set of principals proposed to explain how a number of separate facts are related.
Hypothesis A testable prediction about the conditions under which a particular behavior or mental process may occur
Replication The process of repeating a study to verify research findings
Basic Research Research conducted to seek new knowledge and to explore and advance general scientific understanding
Applied Research Research conducted specifically to solve particular problems and improve the quality of life.
Structuralism The first formal school of thought in psychology aimed at analyzing the basic element or structure of conscious mental experiences
Functionalism An early school of psychology that was concerned with how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their environment.
Behaviorism The school of psychology that views observable, measurable behavior as the appropriate subject matter for psychology and emphasizes the key role of environment as a determinant of behavior
Psychanalysis The term Sigmund Freud used for both his theory of personality and his therapy for the treatment of psychological disorders; The UNCONSCIOUS is the primary focus of psychoanalytic theory
Humanistic Psychology The school of psychology that focuses on uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth and psychological health.
Cognitive Psychology The school of psychology that sees human as active participants in their environment; studies mental processes such as memory, problem solving, reasoning, decision making, perception, language, and other forms of cognitive.
Gestalt Psychology The school of psychology that emphasizes that individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole units and that the perceived whole is more than the sum parts.
Information Processing Theory An approach to the study of mental structures and processes that uses the computer as a model for human thinking.
Evoluntionary Psychology The study of psychology that studies how human behaviors required for survival have adapted in the face of environmental pressures over the long course of evolution. (ONLY the strong survive; Charles Darwin's Theory)
Biological Psychology aka Physiological Psychology The school of psychology that looks for links between specific behaviors and equally specific biological processes that often help explain individual differences.
Neuroscience An interdisciplinary field that combines the work of psychologists, biologists, biochemists, medical researchers, and other in the study of the structure and function of the nervous system.
Sociocultural approach The view that social and cultural factors may be just as powerful as evolutionary and physiological factors in affecting behavior and mental processing and that these factors must be understood when interpreting the behavior of others
Psychological perspective General points of view used for explaining people's behavior and thinking, weather normal or abnormal
Critical Thinking The process of objectively evaluating claims, propositions, and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from the evidence presented.
Descriptive Research Method Research methods that yield descriptions of behavior
Naturalistic Observation A descriptive research method in which researchers observe and record behavior in its natural setting, without attempting to influence or control it
Laboratory Observation A description research method in which behavior is studied in a laboratory setting.
Case Study A descriptive research method in which a single individual or a small number of person s are studied in great depeths
Survey A description research method in which researchers use interviews and/or questionnaires to gather information about the attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors, of a group of people.
Population A sample that mirrors the population of interests; it includes important subgroups in the same proportions as they are found in that population
Sample A part of a populations that is studied to reach conclusions about the entire population.
Representative Sample A sample that mirrors the population of interests; it includes important subgroups in the same proportions as they are found in that population.
Correlation Method a research method used to establish the degree do relationship (correlation) between two characteristics, events or behaviors
Correlation coefficient A numerical value that indicates the strengths and direction of the relationship between two variables; ranges from +1.00 ( a perfect correlation) to -1.00 (a perfect negative correlation)
Experimental Method The only research method that can be used to identify causes-effect relationship between two or more conditions or variables
Causal Hypothesis A prediction about a cause-effect relationship between two or more variables
Variable Any Condition or factor that can be manipulated , controlled, or measured
Independent variable In an experiment, a factor or condition that is deliberately manipulated to determine whether it causes any change in another behavior or condition
Dependent Variable the factor or condition that is measured at the end of an experiment and is presumed to vary as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable (s)
Experimental Group In an experiment, the group that is exposed to an independent variable
Control Group In an experiment, a group similar to the experimental group that is exposed to the same experimental environment but is not given the treatment; used for purposes of comparison
Participant-related bias A type of bias in which a study's participants are not representative of the population to which results will be generalized
Confounding variables Factors other than the independent variable (s) that are unequal across groups
Selection Bias The assignment of participants to experimental or control groups in such a way that systematic differenced among the groups are present at the beginning of the experiment
Random Assignment The process of selecting participants for experimental and control groups by using a chance procedure to guarantee that each participant has an equal probability of being assigned to any of the groups; A control of selection bias
Placebo Effect The phenomenon that occurs in an experiment and control groups by using a chance procedure to grantee that each participant has an equal probability of being assigned to any of the groups ; a control for selection bias
Placebo An inert or harmless substance given to the control group in an experiment as a control for the placebo effect
Experimental bias A phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's preconceived notions or expectations in some what influence participants' behavior and/or the researchers interpretation of the experimental results
Double blind technique A procedure in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is in the experimental and control groups until after the data have been gathered; A control for experiment bias
What are the four goals of psychology? Describe, explain, predict, influence
Scientific Method The orderly, systematic procedures scientist follow in acquiring a body of knowledge
Structuralism Became known in the 19th century, elements of experience, introspection, Titchener
Functionalism Based on Darwins theory of evolution, James, Stream of consciousness, became known in the 19th century
Pro's and Con's of a CASE STUDY ADVANTAGES: appropriate for rare disorders and unusual conditions. Can provide basis for a hypotheses to be tested later. LIMITATION Time consuming, subject to misinterpretation by researcher
Pro's and Con's of a SURVEY
Pro's and Con's of Natural OBSERVATION
Pro's and Con's of a EXPERIMENT
Test Group -vs- Control Group
Independent Variable -vs- Dependent Variable
Created by: RjsmomSusan