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Earth/Space Science

Properties, Cycles, Plate Tectonics, Space, Moon

Atmosphere The mixture of gasses surrounding Earth and other planets
Property Special quality or feature of a substance or an organism that may be used for identification
System 1) A group of related objects and 2) A group of organisms working together
Geosphere The solid portion of earth including landforms, rocks, minerals, and soil, as well as the interior
Hydrosphere All water on Earth
Biosphere The part of the world in which life can exist
Sediment Load The amount of sediments a stream can carry
Climate The long-term weather conditions for a region, generally determined by several years on record
Ozone Layer Layer of atmosphere composed mainly of ozone (O3) 19-48 km above Earth that shields Earth from most of the sun’s ultraviolet rays
Relative Position The position of an object in relation to objects around it
Model A pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept
Constructive Processes Processes that build up landforms on Earth’s surface such as crust formation, volcanoes, and sediment deposition
Destructive Processes Processes that breaks down landforms on Earth’s surface such as weathering and erosion
Evaporation Process of liquid changing into a gas/vapor
Condensation Process of gas changing into a liquid, e.g. Water vapor turning into water droplets
Precipitation Any form of water that falls from the clouds; e.g. rain, snow, hail, sleet
Runoff Water on land that drains into a body of water
Infiltration The seepage of water into soil and rock
Transpiration The passing of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere
Polar 1. Relating to the North or South poles of Earth 2. Relating to the poles of magnets or batteries 3. Cold
Tropical warm
Continental dry
Marine wet
Weathering Process by which materials change when exposed to conditions at or near Earth’s surface
Erosion Group of natural processes, including weathering, dissolution, abrasion, corrosion, and transportation, by which material is worn away from Earth’s surface
Deposition When sediments are carried by wind or water and are deposited in a new location
Wind Patterns Air movement caused by temperature change and influenced by physical features such as mountain ranges, semi-permanent pressure systems, and the shape and rotation of Earth
Sedimentation Letting solids settle out byway of gravity
Compaction Sediments pressed together by gravity and their own weight
Igneous Rock Forms as molten rock cools and becomes solid
Metamorphic Rock Forms as preexisting rock is restructured by heat and pressure
Sedimentary Rock Forms from fragments and mineral grains of varying sizes from preexisting rocks, remains or products of organisms, the products or chemical action, or a mixture of these
Elevation An object’s height above a fixed reference point, often the mean sea level
Soil Top layer of Earth’s surface consisting of rock and mineral particles mixed with other organic matter
Solar Energy Radiant energy from the sun
Crust The upper part of the lithosphere, divided into oceanic and continental crust
Mantle Layer of hot rock between Earth’s crust and core
Lithosphere The solid, outer layer of the Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
Catastrophe A terrible disaster or accident, especially one that leads to great loss of life
Comet A small body composed of ice and rock that travels in an elliptical orbit around the sun
Asteroid Small rocky bodies, about 1,000 km or less in diameter, in space often found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
Convection Currents A cyclical pattern of movement in a fluid, driven by density variations and resulting from differences in temperature from 1 part to another
Continental Drift The gradual movement of continents by tectonic plates under Earth’s surface which causes land masses to move toward or away from one another
Tectonic Plates Extremely large pieces of lithosphere (Earth’s crust)
Diverge When plate boundaries move away from each other
Converge When plate boundaries move towards each other
Subduction Zone The part of a convergent boundary where one plate slides under another plate; leads to volcanoes and mountains
Plate Boundaries The edges where 2 or more tectonic plates meet; convergent, divergent, or transform
Rift Valley A valley that develops when 2 tectonic plates move apart and the land in the middle drops down
Deep Ocean Trench A canyon in the ocean floor resulting from tectonic plate movement
Geothermal The internal heat of Earth
Ring of Fire An area associated with plate boundaries around the Pacific Ocean that has a large amount of volcanic and earthquake activity
Stars A celestial body made of hot gases in which nuclear fission occurs and from which energy is radiated
Planet Any large natural, spherical object that revolves around a star
Moon A natural satellite revolving around a planet
Solar System A star with a group of celestial bodies orbiting it
Apparent Brightness Measure of a star’s light observed or received at a certain position (apparent magnitude)
Rotation The turning of an object on its central axis
Revolution The movement of an object around another, central object; e.g. Earth revolves around the sun
Tilt 1. A straight line about which a body or a geometric figure may rotate 2. a straight line with respect to which a body or figure is symmetrical
Orbit Curved path followed by a planet, moon, or satellite as it revolves around an object
Gravity The force of attraction between all masses in the universe
Tides Periodic rise and fall of water level due to gravitational attraction of the sun and the moon acting on Earth
Moon Phases The change in the sunlit area of the moon when viewed from Earth
Illuminated When an object can be seen because it reflects light
1 Rotation of Earth 1 day (24 hours)
1 Revolution of Earth 1 year (365.25 days)
1 Revolution of the Moon 1 month (27.3 days)
Order of Moon Phases New Moon, Waxing Crescent, 1st Quarter, Waxing Gibbous, Full Moon, Waning Gibbous, 3rd Quarter, Waning Crescent
Solar Eclipse When the moon is directly between Earth and the Sun, casting its shadow on Earth
Lunar Eclipse When the Earth is directly between moon and the Sun, Earth’s shadow falls on the moon
Hemispheres Half of Earth; Northern is above the equator and Southern is below the equator
Seasons Periodic changes in climate due to Earth’s position (tilt) relative to the sun
Created by: jenningsk