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Africa Content Test

all study guide questions (and vocabulary)

Describe and explain Africa's seasons Africa experiences less seasonal change due to tropical location. Consists of wet and dry seasons (90% of Africa is located in the tropics)
Why do we know so little about great African civilizations? Africans had many advanced civilizations but few written records survived because Europeans didn't recognize oral history.
What kind of natural resources does Africa have and why aren't Africa's natural resources consumed primarily by African economies? They have gold, diamonds, salt, solar power etc. These resources are not primarily consumed by African economies because most of the countries' controlling powers consume them and the infrastructure more encourages foreign trade instead of domestic trade
Why does less than 1% of the animal population Africa had in 1900 remain today? this is because the ever-growing human populations are poaching and encroaching into wildlife habitats
Why do Africans connect more to their tribes than to their country? because artificial borders were created by Europeans and they didn't take into account all of the tribes and ethnic groups in Africa. Therefore, people feel more connected to their tribe than their country because the borders dont define true ethnicity
Define ethnocentrism and provide an example racist views of another country. For example, Europeans called some of the housing African's lived in "huts"
Why country has one of the 10 worst dictators in the world and is also where wealthy people live on an island off the coast? Equitorial Guinea
Which country is the most populated in Africa? Nigeria
What is the capital of South Sudan? Juba
Which country is best known for the war between the Hutus and the Tutsis in the early in 1990s? Rwanda
Which country was not colonized due to its physical geography? Ethiopia
Which country is best known for "blood diamonds?" Sierra Leone
Which country is known for their production of vanilla beans? Madagascar
Which country is known for conserving its rainforest and having the longest serving president? Gabon
A fruit vendor in which country started the "Arab Spring?" Tunisea
A killing of U.S. soldiers in this country transformed U.S. foreign policy in Africa. Somalia
Which country was founded by freed slaves? Liberia
Why are there three capitals in South Africa? Because they didn't want one capital to have all the power, so each capital has one branch of government
What did Morocco do in response to the dispute over Western Sahara? They removed their country from the African Union (AU)
Who were the major colinizers of Africa? British and French
What does it mean to be landlocked? Which countries are landlocked today? It means you are completely surrounded by land and no part of your country touches water. Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Central African Republic Chad Ethiopia Lesotho Malawi Mali Niger Rwanda Swaziland Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe
What is the major physical feature separates North Africa from the rest of the continent? The Sahara Desert
How do physical features such as the Sahara or Congo rainforest block movement in Africa? They are tough conditions to thrive in, they are important wildlife habitats so there would be even more damage to the environment and there are an uneven distribution of resources
What African countries are attracting tourists? How? Mainly Gabon and South Africa because they have the "Big 5" (lions, leopards, elephants, buffalos and rhinos)
Describe the typical level of economic development in Africa Africa is primarily between the primary and secondary stages of economic development.
What is the Sahel? It is the area between a grassland and desert
What is desertification and why is it happening to the Sahel? Desertification is the spreading of desert conditions. This is happening to the Sahel because of deforestation, droughts, soil erosion, overpopulation of humans and animals (which eat the vegetation)
How have people adapted to living in arid climates? People wear light clothes (material and color), travel the desert in caravans, houses have flat roofs and no glass windows
Who are the Taureg? They are desert nomads who live and navigate through the desert
What is malnutrition? How will this impact of the level of development in a country? Malnutrition is improper or insufficient diet. Malnourishment means you cannot lead a healthy life. Lack of food results in less human resources (people are not healthy)
How have the people of Ghana and the Maasai balanced modern technology with a traditional way of living? Ghana have "traditional fridays" in order to keep people wearing traditional attire instead of western business attire. The Maasai use computers and cellphones to help bank their proceeds from selling cattle (their main source of income)
Why are Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East studied separately Because they are very different in culture and economics
Why was Sub-Sahran Africa the last continent to be explored and colonized? Because of the many escarpments, falls and rivers. people found it very hard to get into the continent, let alone colonize it
What are social, economical and political impacts of slavery on Africa? The Europeans created a "human resource brain drain" because they only took the smart and healthy people back with them. and families were torn apart so family structure was greatly impacted
Why was there such an interest in Sub-saharan Africa in the late 1800s? What historical, European event was taking place? Because Sub-Sahran Africa had cheap labor, land for growing cash crops and resources for factories. The 1884-1885 Berlin Conference was going on at that time
How did the "land grab" contribute to conflict amongst ethnic groups in Sub-Saharan Africa? Give examples. Europeans created artificial borders, therefore tribal/ethnic groups that did not get along were placed next to each other and tribal/ethnic groups that did get along were separated. For example, Sudan has experienced conflicts as a result of this
Why do African countries still trade with former colonizers? Because colonizers built the infrastructure leading to ports and areas that were easy to export goods. this encouraged foreign trade and made domestic trade difficult
How has the spread of HIV/AIDS impacted Sub-Sahran Africa economically, socially, and politically? How will HIV/AIDS create future problems for Africa? Because there are so many deaths as a result of HIV/AIDS, it has a great impact on the economy because there are less people for the work force, which makes it hard to ecnonomically advance. this could result in an aging, and they could become extinct
At the 1884-1885 Berlin Conference, who divided the land? European nations
Why didn't landlocked countries exist under European control? Europeans controlled large areas that had access to the coasts
Why did European countries want to control parts of Africa? Because in their eyes, having more land (and more resources) equals more power.
What kept European explorers from exploring Africa before America? Because Africa had many escarpments, rushing falls and rivers etc. that made it difficult to enter and explore the continent
Define imperialism empire building
Where was British imperialism in Africa? Did they use direct or indirect rule? Mainly Eastern Africa. They used indirect rule.
Where was the French colonization in Africa? Did they use direct or indirect rule? Mainly Northern or Western Africa. They used direct rule.
After the African countries gained independence, did countries that were under direct or indirect rule have more success? Indirect rule
Why do many African nations continue to trade with their former colonizers? Because most of the colonizers built the infrrastructure (such as rail roads and roads) leading to ports so they could easily be exported. this encourages foreign trade and makes domestic trade difficult
What allowed for the colonialism of Africa? advances in technology and medicine made it possible for europeans to survive, africans hadn't built immunity to the diseases that the europeans brought, etc.
What were the effects of colonization of Africa/ infrastructure (and communication) and medical care was improved, african colonies could only trade with their colonizer, population of africa became more diverse, many of the african countries are landlocked, became unified states, not separate tribes
Who is Robert Mugabe? the president of zimbabwe who has ruled since 1984 (its independence)
Why is zimbabwe suffering severe inflation? because land-redistribution programs confiscated white owned land and because they are mainly an agricultural society, the economy went down and the gov't tried to solve the problem by printing more money...which resulted in hyperinflation
What is apartheid and why was it created? it was official gov't policy that totally separated everything between white africans and black africans. it was created to create racial segregation (so the whites could have the advantage in everything)
What is an economic sanction? it is a law that limits trade
What is an economic boycott? avoiding something to change policy
What were the tactics used to end apartheid in south africa? employment equality act, tried to evenly distribute job opportunities, allowed blacks to vote,
What role did Nelson Mandela and F. W. Clerk play in the ending of apartheid? Nelson Mandela was a civil rights activist and ANC lawyer, he eventually teamed up with F. W. Clerk to end the apartheid laws (he thought that the country would never be at peace until apartheid ended)
What is creating a rift in Ethiopia? the plates are pulling apart
What is genocide? describe the genocide in rwanda genocide is the mass murder of a specific ethnic group or race. in rwanda, the hutus created a mass genocide on the tutsis (the tutsis were favored by the country's colonizer, Belgium)
How was Rwanda developed since the genocide? they have developed tremendously in their economy and infrastructure and the heat between the hutus and tutsis has settled out, so there is more peace now
How is Gabon seen as a role model for development in Africa? they conserve the environment and have a large ecootourism business
How could the honest democratic systems of gov't help to calm or end political turmoil in african countries? If you are a stable country (such as south africa or gabon) other countries will economically support you and then you are able to advance greatly. it is vice versa if you are not a stable country (such as zimbabwe)
How does wildlife lead to a conflict between modern and traditional values? for example, the traditional people want to kill the elephants that keep ruining their subsistence farms and modern people want to protect the elephants
What are conflict minerals? what steps have countries taken to ban them? conflict minerals are rare metals that are used in largely consumed commodities such as cell phones and computers (this huge amount of income creates conflict) and countries have disclosed the source of the minerals)
What is the AU? Why is it needed if African countries plan to compete in the worrld? the AU is the African Union. and its important because then africa has a larger bargaining power with more united countries)
What are 3 assets and 3 liabilities for African countries? assets: abundance of resources, increasing development, AU, tourist attraction. liabilities: instability of countries, child soldiers, poaching/encroaching, HIV/AIDS
Created by: pugsroc54