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Biochem test 2

nwhsu

QuestionAnswer
A complete, catalytically active enzyme together with its bound coenzyme and/or metal ions is called ? holoenzyme
The protein portion of a holoenzyme is called ? apoenzyme
Inorganic ion attached to an enzyme cofactor
organic or metallorganic ion attached to an enzyme coenzyme
3 components of holoenzymes apoenzyme (polypeptide) cofactor & coenzyme (non-amino acid)
enzymes affect ______ rate of reaction
what happens to activation energy in presence of an enzyme it decreases
what type of response is observed in a Vo vs [S] chart Hyperbolic
what is Km michaelis- menton constant the [S] where the rate is 1/2 vmax
what is the michaelis menton equation Vo = (vmax[S])/(Km+[S]) Vo= dependent variable [S]= concentration of substrate Vmax = theoretical maximum velocity Km = constante
what is the inverted MM equation (1/Vo)= (Km+[S])/(Vmax[s])
Lineweeaver burke equation (1/Vo) = (Km/Vmax)(1/[S]) + (1/Vmax) y = m x + b(y intercept)
what is the change in Y / change in X M = Km/Vmax
what is the X-intercept in a LB plot -(1/Km)
what are the three types of reversible inhibition competitive uncompetitive mixed
what happens to Vmax and Km in competitive inhibition Vmax stays the same Km ^ same y intercept in lb plot
what happens to Vmax and Km in uncompetitive Vmax \/ Km \/ does not intercept in lb plot
what happens to Vmax and Km in Mixed Vmax \/ Km ^ intercepts in 2nd quadrant in lb plot
what is it called when Vmax \/ and Km stays the same Non-competitive inhibition
what are 2 subtypes of enzyme regulation noncovalent covalent
what are 2 types of noncovalent (reversible) reculation MM type inhibitors ( competitive, uncompetitive, mixed) Allosteric regulation (removed from active site, change of conformation of enzyme)
what are 2 types of covalent regulation reversible nonreversible
2 examples of reversible, covalent regulation phosphorylation/dephosphorylation methylation/demethylation
example of nonreversible, covalent regulation removal of c and or n terminals
what is allosteric inhibition when a modulator bonds to the enzyme ( not the active site ) and changes the shape of the active site
an example of enzyme-phosphorylation glycogen-phosphorylase
what happens when [glucose] in blood falls below homeostatic value the hormone glucagen stimulates phosphorylase-kinase
what happens when [glucose] in blood is above homeostatic value the hormone insulin stimulates phosphorylase - phosphatase
what is proteolytic cleavage? activity that leads to breaking of a covalent bond in a protein ( peptide bond )
how are inactive precursors to enzymes found? prefix 'pro' or suffix 'gen'
3 examples of non reversible enzyme regulation Hormones Proteases in digestive tract Blood clotting cascade
what are 4 functions of carbohydrates energy ( source, storage ) structure ( dna backbone, cell walls) communication (glycocalyx) joint lubrication (glucosamine)
4 classifications of carbohydrates (from smallest in size to largest) monosaccharide: building block disaccharide: 2 monosaccharides oligosaccharides polysacharides: increasing number of building blocks
a carbohydrate with a aldehyde group aldose
carbohydrate with a ketone group ketose
group names by # of carbons 3-triose 4-tetrose 5-pentose 6-hexose 7-heptose
what conformation is naturally occurring and is biologically active? D-carbohydrate
which carbon determines d or l chiral carbon furthest away from c=o
D and L configurations of the SAME sugar are ______. enantiomers (mirror-images)
know D-glyceraldehyde D-glucose D-Mannose D-galactose D-rhibose Dihydroxyacetone D-fructose
two sugars that differ only in the arrangement around 1 chiral center epimers
what makes an alpha or beta cyclic monosacharide the OH on the C1 carbon opposite of the H2OH on the C6 makes alpha. same side is beta
what is meant by hemiketal (hemiacetal) the bond in a cyclic monosacharide formed by a ketone (aldehyde)
Homopolysaccharides only one type of building block
heteropolysaccharides more than one type of building block
what shape do 1-4 alpha linked polysaccharides make spiral
explain the important features of cellulose higher organisms cannot express hydrolytic enzymes(cellulase) therefore there is no breakdown of cellulose and it is used as fiber. beta 1-4 linked
explain the important features of lactose it has a beta 1-4 connection, majority of humans cannot express lactase and therefore are lactose intolerant
what is the main storage polysaccharide in animal cells glycogen
give information on peptidoglycan it is found in the cell wall of bacteria certain antibiotics inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis and prevent bacteria multiplication
give 2 types of glucosaminoglycans hyaluronate heparin
function of hyaluronate joint lubrication
heparin regulates blood clotting by binding to prothrombin to prevent clotting.
know glucose family monosacharides
starch -monosaccharides -linkage -function m:glucose l: 1-4 alpha br: 1-6 alpha f:energy storage in plants
glycogen -monosaccharides -linkage -function -monosaccharides : glucose -linkage: 1-4 alpha br: 1-6 alpha -function: energy storage in animals
Describe Cellulose (fiber). (building blocks, location, function, bond type, etc.) Homopolysaccharide of glucose. Beta-1,4 connection forming an acetal(glycosidic) bond. Linear/unbranched. Reducing end contains a hemiacetal. Extra-cellular. Indigestable by humans as we lack the enzyme to hydrolyze the B-1,4 bond.
Describe Chitin (fiber). (building blocks, location, function, bond type, etc.) Homopolysaccharide. Beta-1,4. Found in cell walls in fungi, exoskeletons in arthropods, and is indigestable by humans as we lack the enzyme to hydrolyze the B-1,4 bond.
Describe Peptidoglycan. (building blocks, location, function, bond type, etc.) Heteropolysaccharide. Repeating dimers. Beta-1,4. Found in bacterial cell walls. Antibiotics (Penicillin) inhibits cell wall synthesis and bacterial replication.
Describe Hyaluronate. (building blocks, location, function, bond type, etc.) Heteropolysaccharide. Glucosaminoglycan. Repeating Disaccharide. Associates with lots of water, lots of OH groups. Functions in joint lubrication, and extracellular structure of skin/CT. Beta-1,3 WITHIN disaccharide. Beta-1,4 BETWEEN disaccharides.
Describe Heparin (building blocks, location, function, bond type, etc.) Heteroploysaccharide. Glucosaminoglycan. Repeating Disaccharide. Found in blood. Regulates blood clotting. Binds to Prothrombin. Non-covalent,reversible. alpha-1,4
Describe Chondroitin. (building blocks, location, function, bond type, etc.) Heteropolysaccharide. Glucosaminoglycan. Repeating Disaccharide. Associates with lots of water, lots of OH groups. Functions in joint lubrication, and extracellular structure of skin/CT. Beta-1,3 WITHIN disaccharide. Beta-1,4 BETWEEN disaccharides. SMALL!
Describe Keratan Sulfate. (building blocks, location, function, bond type, etc.) Heteropolysaccharide. Glucosaminoglycan. Repeating Disaccharide. Associates with lots of water, lots of OH groups. Functions in joint lubrication, and extracellular structure of skin/CT. Beta-1,4 WITHIN disaccharide. Beta-1,3 BETWEEN disaccharides. SMALL!
Created by: Aaron Esquibel Aaron Esquibel on 2012-02-25



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