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Development and Learning

What can the behaviors and the attitude of parents do to their children? their development even before birth, as in cases or poor nutrition, prenatal drug abuse, smoking, and maternal depression.
When parents lack knowledge, skills, and support systems, and presence of attitudes gives what type of outcome to the child? less-than-optimal
wide variations of configuration of families; call for the ECE professionals to do what? have an empathic understanding of the challenges and demands of parenting.
What awareness will ECE professionals benefit from with their parenting roles? increase understanding of parental rols and perspectives
What ages are the highest rate for births? women age 20 to 24; approx. 1/2.
What age are there 82% of women, and 67% of men to likely have children? 30s
By their 40s men and women are at what percent? men are at 85% and women are at 87%.
why is it that families are becoming pregnant for the first time at 35yrs of age or older? women are chosen to complete their education and get careers before families.
what does Prenatal mean? the time from conception until birth, an average of 266 days, or 38 weeks.
what is the capability of conceiving the child? fertility
Hypertension? high blood pressure
Gestational diabetes diabetes that develops after a women becomes pregnant
the number of births per 1,000 women of age 15 to 44years of age. fertility rate
what are the standard age/risk figures for Down Syndrome births and other serious conditions 1 in 1,250 chance when the mother is younger than age 30 1 in 400 chance when the mother is 35. 1 in 100 chance when the mother is 40. 1 in 30 chance when the mother is 45. 1 in 10 chance when the mother is 49.
When mothers are in their late 40s and 50s what are some physical conditions that effect them hypertension, gestational diabetes, anemia, and poor nutrition.
What is the change in the percentage of birth rate in teenagers from 1991 to 2001 in 1991 was 61.8 per 1,000 in 2001 was 45.3 per 1,000
Teenage pregnancies are dangerous for the baby because? mother ill informed, fearful of pregnancy; no knowledge of available resources, limited family support; and financial resources.
What are some other issues that mother may have that can cause problems for both mother and child? poor body image and poor prenatal nutrition -nutritional and diet disorders such as anorexia and bulimia.
what is anorexia a severe disorder, usually seen in adolescent girls, characterized by self-starvation
what is bulimia a severe disorder, ususally seen in adolescent girls, characterized by binging and then self-induced vomiting
Some programs that communities may provide? home visitor and doula
what is a home visitor? a trained nurse or para-professional
what is a doula? a Greek word for a female servant wh provides assistance and support during childbirth
what is a good age between children? experts suggests 3yrs.
what are different types of costs involving with raising children. child care and educatin 11%; health 7%; other 11%; clothing 6%; transportation 14%; food 17 % and housing 34%.
who has hormonal changes can precipitate mood swings and feelings of sleepiness, irritability, or mild depression once they find out about a pregnancy? the prospective mother.
Neurobiological agents are? Hormones adn chemicals that facilitate the transmission of information throughout the nervous system. (estrogen, prolactin, oxytocin, dopamine, and other that promote maternal behaviors.)
the period encompasing the weeks before a birth, the birth, and the few weeks thereafter perinatal
Heredity the inherited characteristics of humans encoded by genes.
other the heredity what else is different between humans? the environment (the experience, conditions, objects, and people that directly or indirectly influenc the development and behavior of a child.
At the point of fertilization, the_________ of the mother and father unite. chromosomes.(ordered groups of genes within the nucleus of a cell).
Chromosomes contain approximately 80,000 of these? genes. (molecules of DNA that encode and transmit the characteristics of past generations).
Genetic potential is also known as genotype (the combination of genes inherited from the parents and their ancestors).
Genes include ______. recessive genes( a gene that carries a trait that may not appear unless a gene for the same trait is inherited from both parents.
Genes are composed of _____. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule containg the information that causes the formation of proteins that stimulate the development of tissues adn organs and affect other genes and physiological functions).
numerical or structural abnormalities may result in this? abortion. (the ending of a pregnancy).
when baby is born with defective chromosome it may result in? congenital anomalies. (skeletal or body system abnormalities caused by defective genes within the chromosomes, which usually affect the developing embryo during the 1st 8 weeks of pregnancy.
Mother produces antibodies to destory the red blood cells of her second baby and babies after. Rh Factor when fetus of a mother has Rh-negative blood inherits Rh-positive blood from the father.
Fetus? the developing human from nine weeks after conception to birth.
information provided to parents or prospective parents about the possibility and nature of genetic disorders in their baby. Genetic counseling
Alphafetoprotein test is what type of test? chromosomal disorder. (a technique that involves extracting amniotic fluid for the purpose of detecting all chromosomal and more than 100 biomedical disorders).
aid in identifying all chromosomal disorders and biochemical disorders? amniocentesis (a technique that involves extracting amniotic fluid for the purpose of detecting all chromosal and more than 100 biomedical disorders.
Third method to determing chromosomal disorders? Chorionic villus test (CVT); (a test that analyzes samples of the hairlike projections (chorionic villi) of tissue in the placenta to determine chromosal disorders (can be done earlier than amniocentesis).
Genome? the sum total of gene types possessed by a particular species.
is very expensive and may have to be repeated before a definitve diagnosis can be made. (cancer, etc.). Polymerase chain reacton (PCR).
the first cell resulting from the fertilization of the ovum by the sperm? zygote
gender? the maleness or femaleness of the zygote as determined by te kind of sperm fertilizing the ovum (Y sperm: genetically male; X sperm genetically female).
an organ attached to the wall of the uterus, which transmits nurtients from the mother to the embryo/fetus and filters waster from the embryo/fetus to the mother. placenta.
Identical twins versus faternal twins? identical twins is when one egg splits into to equal parents whereas fraternal twins are when there is two separate eggs fertilized.
Embroyonic stage critical to the healthy development of the fetus (weeks three through eight of pregnancy, during which the major organ systems are formed.
environmental factors, such as viruses and chemical substances, that can cause abnormalities in the developing embryo or fetus. teratogens
fetal stage from 9 weeks of pregnancy and continues until birth.
a viral disease that can cause birth disorders if the mother contracts if during the first three months of pregnancy (also known as German measles) rubella
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS - a disease that attacks the immune system, causing death from illnesses that the immune system cannot ward off.
implantation stage conception to week 3.
the virus that causes AIDS; it can be transmitted from an infected mother to the fetus or embryo via the placenta or delivery fluids. immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
toxoplasmosis a viral infection that can be transmitted from cat droppins or raw meat to the mother and from her to the fetus or embryo via the placenta, causing birth disorders
toxemia a disease of unknown cause that occurs in the last trimester and can cause death to both mother and child.
what are some things for optional preparation? stop smoking, stop drinking, start taking proper vitamin
Prenatal preparations? keep up on regular prental doctor appts. Limit the amount of caffeeine per day. Make sure to get plenty of rest, and nutrition.
What are some Sociocultural factors? age of parents; prospective fathers; size of family;attitudes & support from important others.
types of costs involved in taking care of a child housing, child care and education, health, clothing, transportation;and food.
What is the better-know class for preparing for childbirth? Lamaze method (Karmel, 1959). It instructs the mother-to-be and her coach, usually the father-to-be, in breathing patterns that help to control pain and discomfort during the different stages of labor.
who helps the mothers when they want a completely natural birth? nurse-midwife
what is a doula? a paraprofessional who provides emotional and physical support to mothers beginning sometime during pregnacy and continuing through labor, delivery, and the first weeks after the infant is born.
What type of resources can parents use for guidance before the birth of a child? many reference books, ask other mothers; OB-GYN will give some pamphlets out with information on different medication and their effects on the fetus and mother.
Ways to prepare siblings younger than 3 for the birth of a new child? plan some special activities or time spent alone with them after the birth. planning this events ahead of time can prevent the children from feeling neglected. dolls with accessories so they can take care of their baby while you take care of the sibling.
what type of characteristics should the babysitter of the siblings during the birth have? nurturant and undering of their expressions of distress at seperation from their mother and other anxities.
what are the stages of labor? there are three stages; 1 - dilation; 2- birth; 3 - expulsion of the placenta.
what are the three phases of dilation stage? 1-earliest phase, water breaks,cervix begins to dilate. contraction begin. 2-active phase, dilate up to 5 to 8 centimeters; contraction are stronger and happen about 3 min. apart, lasting 30 to 45 seconds 3-cervix 8-10 cent. and contraction 2-3 min apar
What are various types of delivery? c-section; natural; breech position delivery
What is the Apgare Score? has different categories that are used as assessments for newborns. "heart rate; skin tone; muscle tone; reflexes; respiratory effort (breathing). Each has a 0,1,or 2 score, where 2 is highest
What is the other type of assessment used for newborns, not Apgar score? Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment scale (NBAS) 26 behavioral items & 16 reflexes. needs training because it tries to elicit the infant's highest lvl of performance, normally used in research, but seen being used on preterm infants & at risk infants
Bonding is part of a new social system after baby is born. What are the characteristic of bonding. begins during pregnancy, but mostly during few 1st few moments, early days and weeks of the infant's intro. into their lives.
What also affects the dynamics of the family besides bonding? reactions of the newborn; reaction of mothers
what is kangaroo care, a type of bonding? a way of holding a pre- or full-trm infant, wearing only a diaper, in skin-to-skin contact with one of the parents. preterm: 2-3hours. helps premature infants regulate temps.; also helps to increase the success of breastfeeding
What type of reactions due mothers face after infant is born? Postparum depression; postpartum psychosis.
Reactions of the father when infant is introduced? worry about whether they will be good fathers, whether they will please their wives, the added financial responsibility, possible changes in the relationship with their wives, and lack of freedom.
Reaction of siblings when infant is introduced? during first 4 months they will engaged in baby talk, using baby table manners, demanding a bottle or pacifier, and regressing in toileting behaviors. some children will be clingy; whiny, withdrawn, and need a security blanket.
reaction of extended family when infant is introduced? grandparents are usually thrilled, some think negative feelings about the birth of grandchild as a sign of them getting older. siblings of parents may feel like there is competence.
what are different type of genetic disorders? albinism, color blindness, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, huntington disease, Phenylketonuria (PKU), sickle-cell disease, Tay-Sachs disease
Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Trisomies, turner syndrome, and klinefelter syndrome are all type of? Chromosoal abnormalities.
what are some of the milestones for infants motor control in the first three months? support head when in prone position, lifts head, supports weight on elbows, hands relax from the grasping reflex, visually following a moving object, pushes with feet against lap when held upright, sits with support turns to side to back.
The Early intervention Program for infants and toddlers with disabilities is for what ages? birth through age 2
assistive technology
embedded learning
emereging literacy the diverse skills that help children become successful in reading, writing and other academic tasks.
functionally illiterate not possessing reading and writing skills used in day-to-day tasks.
holding activities
perceptual-motor skills
pre-academic prerequiste skills that provide the foundation for the formal academic training that usually starts in first grade.
rote memorization
sensory integration
What is the PL 107-110? No Child Left Behind Act.
Created by: agilbe5