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Chapt 9 Q & A

Pharmacology & Med Admin Q&A

Whats is pharmacology? The study of drugs and their effects on the human body
The MA is responsibile for _____________ Medications Order Reading
The MA is responsible for ____________ medications. Administering
The MA should always be aware of the _____ effects. Side
The MA should be able to _________ side effects Reconize
When administering medications perscribed to the patient, the MA should review any _______ with the patient Instructions
What does the term "PROPHYLACTIC" mean? Prevents
______________ refers to the time and process whereby a drug reaches the cells and produces the desired action. Absorption
Why are oral tablets absorbed slowly? Digestion must take place first, before medication is absorbed in the blood stream
Does Oral Medication pass through the digestive quicker or slower. Quicker
Which is the fastest way that medication is absorbed immediately into the bloodstream? Intravenous
Where does abosorption take place? In the STOMACH - Small Intestine
Drug __________ refers to the circulation of the absorbed drug through the body? Drug Distrubution
Drug _________ or processing, takes place in the liver before or after entering the bloodstream. Drug Metabolism
_________ of the inactivated products of medication in the system is performed mostly by the kidneys, intestinal tract,lungs, and skin Excretion
What is the function of Therapeutic Drugs Treats and Relieve Symptoms
What is the function of Diagnostic drugs Assists in the diagnosis of disease
What is the function of Curative Drugs Intervenes in the disease process and improves the quality of life
What is the function of Replacement Drugs Restores a normal body substance
What is the function of Preventive or Prophylactic drugs MAINTAIN a healthy state by PREVENTING disease
__________ are effects generated by the medication other than the intended or desired effects. SIDE EFFECTS
A ____ drug can only be obtained with a written perscription from a licensed physician PRESCRIPTION DRUG
A _____ Drug can be purchased without a perscription for self medicatio. OTC - Over-The-Counter Medication
Name some common OTC drugs? Aspirin, Tylenol, Motrin, Aleve
Where do drugs come from? Plants-Animals and Minerals or Manufactures
The quality and safety of nonprescription substances are controlled by who? The FDA
What does NOMENCLATURE mean? The way drugs are named
What is a PDR? Physicians Desk Refrence
Who often is the PDR published? Annually
Where does DISTRIBUTION take place at? Via the blood stream
Where does METABOLISM of drugs take place? Takes place in the LIVER before or after entering the blood stream
Where does EXCRETION of drugs take place? The Kidneys, Intestinal Tract,Lungs and Skin
An English Bacteriologist accidently discovered that a mold growing on a culture of disease-causing bacteria was killing the bacteria. What was his name? Alexander Fleming
What did his accidental discovery lead to? Development of Penicillin
T/F - Is it important that you ask all patients if they are taking OTC drugs? Yes it is
What substance originally derived from the pancreas of pigs an cows, was discovered in the 1920's to be effective in the treatment of diabetes is called what? Insulin
What are 5 factors that affect absorption? 1) Concentration of drug 2)Frequency of drug 3)Food-Drug interactions 4)Drug to Drug Interactions 5)Absorption Rate
Adverse reactions to medications may be classified as what? Side effects - Toxic Effects or Idiosyncratic reactions
________ results from prescription overdose, accidental overdose,alergic reactions, interactions between 2 or more drugs taken at the same time. Toxic Effects
What is Idiosyncratic reactions? Reactions that cannot be explained or predicted and may be genetically determined.
What is the most common contraindication? Pregnancy
How are drugs classified? They are classified according to function and the area of th ebody they effect.
What is the CNS? Central Nervous System
The CNS is composed of ? The brain and the spinal cord
What is the PNS? Peripheral Nervous System
What makes up the PNS? All nervous system structures outside the brain and spinal cord and includes 12 pairs of crainal nerves.
The autonomic system is made up of 2 divisions, what are they? Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System
What does the Sympathetic Nervous System do? Initiates the body's response to threat or danger (often referred to as "FIGHT OR FLIGHT")
What does the PARA Sympathetic Nervous System do? It applies the "BRAKES" to bring the body functioning back to normal.
What are the NEUROTRANSMITTERS called in the ANS Epinephrine - Norepinephrne-acetylcholine
What is the ANS reaction within the VESSELS when given a ADRENERGIC AGONISTS-SYMPATHOMIMETICS The vessels CONSTRICT
What happens when a CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS is given DILATES
What happens to the heart when a Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics) is given Speeds up rate and increases contractility
What happens to the heart when a Cholinergic (Parasympathomimetics) is given Slows down rate and decreases contractility
What happens to the Respiratory System when a Adrenergice is given Bronchioles constricts
What happens to the respiratory system when a cholinergic (para) is given Dilates bronchioles
When a adrenergic (symp) agonists is given the GI Tracts reacts how? Peristalsis slows down
When a cholinergic (para) is given the GI Tract reacts how? Peristalsis increased
When a adrenergic (symp) is administer the Urinary Tract reacts how? The bladder relaxes and the sphincter contracts
When a cholinergic agonists is admiistered the Urinary Tract reacts how? Contracts the bladder and relaxes the sphincter
When given a adrenergic (symp) is administer the Eyes react how Pupils Dilate
What reactions does the eyes have when given a Cholinergic (para) Pupils CONSTRICT
What is MYOSIS? When the Pupils CONSTRICT
What does ACETYCHOLINE main job to do Restores body systems to normal function (HOUSEKEEPING AGENT0
What are ANALGESICS Drugs that help to reduce pain without altering level of consiousness
How do they work? By blocking the transmission of pain impulses to the brain
Narcotic Analgesics such as morphoine, demoral oxycontin main functions are to do what? Releives SEVERE PAIN,such as Postoperative-myocardial-pain from trauma
Non-Narcotic Analgesics or Non-Opioid such as acetaminophen, aspirin main function is to do what? Relieves MINOR PAIN
What does ANYIPYRETIC MEAN Fever Reducing
Anesthetic medications are available in 2 forms, what are they? General Anesthetic and Local Anesthetic
What is LOCAL ANESTHETIC? It provides TEMPORARY LOSS OF SENSATION from specific area of the body.
What does vasoconstrictors such as Norepinephrine or epinephrine do? Treats shock; it primary action is constriction of vessels
What does vasodilators such as nitroglycerin do? Treats ANGINA and HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS.
Decongestions such as Afrin and Sudafeds main function is? Used to constrict nasal membranes to open air passageways
Expectorants such as Robotussin do what? Increases repiratory secretion and liquefies secretions to make it easier to cough up
What is a DIURETICS main function It is used to treat FLUID BUILD UP in CHF (Congestive Heart Failure) and Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
Can ANTIINFLAMMATORY drugs be Corticosteroids and NSAIDs Yes
When are corticosteroids prescribed? When the inflammatory process is severe and immideiate reversal of the condition is indicated
Why are they avoided whenever possible? Because they have serious side effects
NSAIDs do what? help to relieve common inflammation, including arthritis and other chronic inflammatory conditions
What are Cardiovascular drugs prescribed for? to treat conditions of the heart and blood vessels
Cardiovascular drugs include Glycosides, antiarrythmics agents,anticoagulants vasodialators, and antihypertension
What are ANTIINFECTIVE AGENTS used for? To treat infections caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi
What test is often performed to determine the OPTIMUM Drug for a particular infective microorganism CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY TEST
Some RESPIRATORY Drugs include..... Anithistamines, Expectorants, broncodilators, dcongestants
What does Antihistamines help to relieve? NASAL CONGESTION
Which system is the most widely used measurement system today? Metric System
1 Kilogram (kg) = what? 2.2 pounds (lb)
1 Kilgram (kg) = 1000 grams (gm)
1 Gram = 1000 milligrams (mg)
1 milligram (mg) = 1000 micrograms (mcg)
1 inch (in) 2.5 centimetes (cm)
1 liter (L) 1000 Milliliters (ml) or 1000 cubic centimeters (cc)
1 Milliliter (ml) 15 minims
1000 ML = 4 CUPS OR 1 QT
500 ML = 1PT
30 ML = 1 FL OZ
15 ML = 1 TBLSP
5 ML = 1 TSP
1 ML = 15 DROPS
What does YOUNGS-CLARKS-FRIEDS methods of calculation determines? To determine what percentage of an adult dose was appropriate for a child
Created by: spoon6464