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Week 1 - 6

What is pharmacology? The study of drugs.
What are side effects? The minor unintended negative effects. More annoying than anything.
What are adverse effects? The serious unintended negative effects. Severity requires changes in drug or dosage.
What are toxic effects? Very serious/harmful/deadly effects. Implies drug poisoning. Treatment has to be stopped and intervention may be required.
What are drugs? Any substance that, when administered to living tissues, produces a change in function.
What are the majors subdivisions of pharmacology? 1. Pharmacodynamic 2. Pharmacokinetic 3. Pharmacotherapeutic 4. Pharmacy 5. Posology 6. Toxicology
What is pharmacokinetic? The study of the process of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. ADME
What is pharmacodynamic? The study of the action of drugs on living organisms.
What is pharmacotherapeutic? The study of the use of drugs to treat diseases.
What is pharmacy? The science of dispensing and preparing medecines.
Whats is posology? The study of the amount of drugs that is required to produce therapeutic effects.
What is toxicology? The study of the harmful effects of drugs on living organisms.
What are drug sources? When they started, drugs were obtained from plants and animal sources. Now, they are derived from those sources, chemically manufactured or products of genetic modifications.
What is an indication? The therapeutic use of a drug.
What is a contraindication? A situation when a drug should NOT be used.
What is a therapeutic effect? The intended beneficial effect
What is a site of action? The location in the body where the drugs acts.Known for most but still unknown for a few.
What is a mechanism of action? How a drug produces its effect at a molecular level.
What is a receptor site? A specific chemical structure on a cell where the drug interacts with the cell.
What are agonists? Drugs that induce an action when bound to the receptor site.
What are antigonists? Drugs that inhibit agonist drugs or cellular function when bound to the receptor site.
What is competitive antagonism? 2 drugs administered together target the same receptor site. They compete for the receptors, the one that gets the most wins!
What is uncompetitive antagonism? Drugs interfere with each other without targeting the same receptor site.
LD 50 VS ED 50 Dosage where 50% people got the lethal dose (died) VS where 50% people got effective dose (responded).
What is the therapeutic index (window)? Dosage where a drug has max therapeutic effects and min negative effect ratio.
What are the 3 major naming systems? 1. Chemical name 2. Nonproprietary name : generic 3. Proprietary name: brand
Prescription VS nonprescription drugs Prescription drugs have to be prescribed by a doctor. Nonprescription drug are available over the counter.
What are the 4 types of drug preparation? 1. Acqueous 2. Solid 3. Semi solid 4. Alcoholic
What are the 4 routes of drug administration? 1. Oral 2. Parenteral 3. Skin 4. Lungs
What are the 4 oral routes of drug administration? 1. Sublingual 2. Buccal 3. Rectal 4. Digestive tract
What are 3 parenteral routes of drug administration? 1. Intravenous 2. Intramuscular 3. Subcutaneous
What are the 4 drug processes involved in pharmacokinetics? A-D-M-E
What is the most common source of drugs? Plants
List effects in increasing order of concern. side-adverse-toxic
What kind of drugs are classified Schedule I? Drugs w/ high abuse potential and no accepted medical use.
What kind of drugs are classified Schedule II? Drugs w/ high abuse potential and accepted medical use.
What kind of drugs are classified Schedule III? Drugs w/ moderate abuse potential and accepted medical use.
What kind of drugs are classified Schedule IV? Drugs w/ low abuse potential and accepted medical use.
What kind of drugs are classified Schedule V? Drugs w/ limited abuse potential and accepted medical use.
What chemical property do most drugs have? Water solubility
An ionized drug means that the drug is... charged
What type of compound crosses membranes easiest? Lipids
What is the first-pass effect? The blood flowing from the GI tract through the liver before going to any other organs.
What protein carriers are found in the blood? Albumin and Globulins
Where do biotransformation primarily occur? In the liver
Where do acidic drugs get absorbed? In acidic conditions. e.g. stomach
Where do basic drugs get absorbed? In basic conditions. e.g. GI tract
What is the primary excretory organ for drugs? The kidney
Do liquid or solid drugs get absorbed the fastest? Liquids
Where do drugs go after they are absorbed? In the bloodstream
Name a high blood flow organ The liver
Name a low blood flow organ Adipose tissue
What stops most of the drug from getting to the brain? Additional lipid membrane between blood and brain cells.
What does the blood brain barrier blocks? Electrolytes and water soluble compounds.
What does the blood brain barrier allow through? Lipid-soluble compounds. e.g. Morphine and Heroine.
What are hepatocytes? Liver cells
What is he major cause in the reduction of drug bioavailability? First-pass metabolism.
What are 2 phenomenon that can change biotransformation? 1. Enzyme induction (CYP) 2. Enzyme inhibition (CYP)
What are the 4 routes of drug excretion? 1. Renal 2. GI tract 3. Respiratory 4. Misc. (minor) [sweat, saliva, milk]
What is the most important route of drug excretion? Renal
How does GI tract excretion work? Oral drugs are never entirely excreted. They travel in a loop in the enterohepatic pathway. (liver-bile-intestine-liver)
What is a half-life? The time required for the plasma concentration of a drug to decrease to 50% of its original level.
What does the half-life depend on? A-D-M-E
What is bioavailability? The percentage of drug administered that makes it into the blood stream.
What can affect bioavailability? (5) 1. Coating 2. Particle size 3. Carrier molecules 4. Fillers 5. Individual variation
What are factors of individual variation? 1. Age 2. Weight 3. Sex/Percent body fat 4. Genetic variation 5. Emotional state 6. Placebo effect 7. Disease 8. Patient compliance
What is drug tolerance? Decreased drug effect that occur after repeated administration.
What is drug dependence? Reliance on the administration of a particular drug becomes extremely important to the well-being of an individual.
What is drug addiction? When drug dependence is severe and compulsive drug behavior dominates all other activities.
What is drug incompatibility? Physical alterations of drugs before administration when drugs are mixed in the same syringe or container.
What are additive effects? When combined effect of 2 drugs producing the same biological response by the same mechanism of action is equal to the sum of their individual effects.
What is drug summation? When combined effect of 2 drugs producing the same biological response by a different mechanism of action is equal to the sum of their individual effects.
What is drug synergism? When the combined effect of 2 drugs is greater than the sum of their individual effects.
What is drug antagonism? When the combined effect of 2 drugs is less than the sum of their individual effects.
What are 2 types of dependence? 1. Psychological (unpleasant) 2. Physical (withdrawal symptoms)
What are 2 types of tolerance? 1. Metabolic tolerance : Enzyme induction 2. Parmacodynamic tolerance : Reduction in drug receptor expression
What are the 2 divisions of the Nervous system? 1. Peripheral NS 2. Central NS
What is included in the central NS? The brain and the spine.
What are the 2 divisions of the peripheral NS? 1. Somatic NS 2. Autonomic NS
What are the 2 divisions of the autonomic NS? 1. Sympathetic NS 2. Parasympathetic NS
What reaction is associated with the Sympathetic NS? Fight-Or-Flight
What reaction is associated with the Parasympathetic NS? Rest and Recovery
What does the parasympathetic NS rely on? Acetylcholine and muscarinic receptor
An increase in sympathetic tone would cause? (6) 1. ˅ digestion 2. ˄ pupil diameter 3. ˄ breathing 4. ˄ heart rate 5. ˄ blood pressure 6. ˅ blood flow
What does the sympathetic NS rely on? Nor-epinephrine and adrenergic receptor
An increase in parasympathetic tone would cause? (6) 1. ˄ digestion 2. ˅ pupil diameter 3. ˅ breathing 4. ˅ heart rate 5. ˅ blood pressure 6. ˄ blood flow
What is a bundle of nerve connection? Ganglion
Alpha-adrenergic drug use would increase GI motility. (T or F) False
A selective beta-1 adrenergic receptor blocker should increase bronchodilation. (T or F) False
Anticholonergics have similar effects as reversible ACE inhibitors. (T or F) False
Direct acting cholinergics activate nicotinic muscarinic receptors. (T or F) True
What are 2 cholinergic receptors? Nicotinic and muscarinic
What are the 2 types of nicotinic receptors? Muscle and nerve.
What are the 2 types of adrenergic receptors? Alpha and beta
What is the difference between sedative and hypnotic effects of a sedative-hypnotic drug? The dosage
What is the order of sleep aides in order of increasing effects? Misc. - BDZ - Barbiturate
REM sleep is entered from which stage? Stage 1
Which stage is usually lengthened by sleep aides? Stage 2
Which drugs interact with Chlorine channels? (3) 1. BDZ 2. Alcohol 3. Barbiturates
Is anxiety always unhealthy? NO
What drug should you use if you have trouble sleeping? Sonata
What is reduced with antipsychotics? Serotonin and dopamine
What is the role of the limbic region of the brain? Regulates emotions
What are the four areas of the CNS that Benzodiazepine affect? 1. Limbic system 2. Reticular formation 3. Cerebral cortex 4. Spinal cord
What do adrenergic alpha-1 regulate? Contraction of smooth muscle
What do adrenergic alpha-2 regulate? -ve feedback
What do adrenergic beta-1 regulate? Increase force of heart concentration and heart rate.
What do adrenergic beta-2 regulate? Relaxation of smooth muscle
What is drug idiosyncrasy? Individual unusual response to a drug
What are drug allergy? Individual genetic response to a drug.
What is the difference between afferent and efferent nerves? Afferent nerves receive and transfer the signal while efferent acts upon the signal.
Differentiate cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. Colinergic receptor are for the parasympathetic NS while adrenergic is for the sympathetic NS. Cholinergic binds to ACH and adrenergic binds to NE or E.
From what area of the CNS does the parasympathetic NS originate? The brain and spinal cord.
From what area of the CNs does the sympathetic NS originate? Thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves.
Explain "dual autonomic innervation". Each organ is connect to nerves from the parasympathetic NS and the sympathetic NS.
What property of smooth muscle allows them to contract on their own? Autorhythmicity.
What condition activates a fight-or-flight reaction? A frighteneing or emergency situation.
Where do autonomic nerve conduct their nerve impulse? To visceral organs.
Where do somatic nerves send their nerve impulse? To skeletal muscles.
What nerves are part of the parasympathetic division? Cranial and Sacral
What nerves are part of the sympathetic division? Thoracic and lumbar
What drugs block or decrease sympathetic NS activity? Sympatholitic
What drug acts at the neural endings to reduce the formation or release of NE? Adrenergic neural blockers
What receptor mediates smooth muscle contraction? Alpha-1 receptors.
What adrenergic receptorsare located on either the heart or smooth muscle? Beta receptors.
What drug blocks both beta-1 and beta-2 effects of EPI? Non selective beta blockers.
What drug blocks the alpha effects of NE and EPI? Alpha blockers
What is the chemical classification of NE and EPI? Catecholamine.
What is an adrenergic drug or effect that increase the sympathetic NS activity? Sympathomimetic
What hormone is released from the adrenal medulla that stimulates the sympathetic NS? EPI
Describe the difference between the effect of NE and EPI. NE contracts smooth muscles and EPI relaxes smooth muscles.
What receptors does EPI stimulate? Alpha and beta
What is the drug of choice to treat acute allergic reactions? EPI
What receptors does NE stimulate? Alpha-1
What is the function oc acetylcholinesterase? It breaks down ACH.
Where is acetulcholinesterase found? In the area of cholinergic receptors.
Where are the 3 cholinergic receptors located and what drug blocks them? 1. Muscarinic : postganglionic nerve endings - anticholinergic 2. Nicotinic-muscle : NMJ of skeletal muscle - NM-blockers or muscle relaxants 3. Nicotinic-nerve : Ganglionic sites (PSNS-SNS) - Ganglionic blockers
Explain direct-acting cholinergic drugs. Binds to muscarinic receptors and acts like ACH but for a longer period than ACH.
Explain indirect-acting cholinergic drugs. Inhibits acetylcholinestearse and allows accumulation of ACH.
What are 2 types of indirect-acting cholinergic drugs? Reversible and irreversible inhibitors.
What is a potential adverse effect of cholinergic drugs? Excessive stimulation.
What is a potential adverse effect of anticholinergic drugs? Excessive blockage.
What parasympathetic receptors are located on the membranes of internal organs? Muscarinic receptors.
What are depolarizing blockers? They inhibit muscle contraction by binding to Nm receptor and depolarizing so ACH can't stimulate it.
What are nondepolarizing blockers? They bind to Nm receptors but don't stimulate it. act as antagonist to ACH.
What are peripheral skeletal muscle relaxants? Inhibits muscle contraction at NMJ by blocking Nm receptors.
What are centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxants? Block conduction in the spinal cord and brain.
What is Nervemuscular junction? Where nerve connects to muscle.
What are 2 types of peripheral skeletal muscle relaxants? Depolarizing and nondepolarizing.
what is fasiculation? Twitching of muscle fiber group.
What is hyperthermia? Drastic increase in temperature.
What is vagolytic action? Inhibition of vagus nerve to the heart, causes increase in heart rate.
What is a vasodilator? relaxes sphincters linding to increase in blood flow.
What is the major toxicity associated w/ NM-blockers and what is the antidote? Paralysis of respiratory muscle. Neostigmine or edrophonium.
Explain how Dantrolene works. Dantrolene inhibits muscle contraction by blocking calcium release in the muscle cells
When are centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant used? situations where spinal cord has been damaged or for surgical procedures.
what are spasmotytics? Drugs that can inhibit or interrupt painful intermittent muscle contractions.
What is a thin membrane enclosing a striated, skeletal muscle fiber? sarcolemma
What is the space around the brain and spinal cord that contains the cerebrospinal fluid called? Intrathecal
What is myelin? The fatty sub. that covers and protects nerves and allows efficient conduction of action potential down the axon.
Synonym to potentiates? Synergy
What is the difference between local and general anesthetics? A general anesthetic depresses response to the CNS while local affects nerve conduction which can be specific to limited area of the body.
What is an exagerated response to a local anesthetic? hypersensitivity.
What is placing a drug on the surface of the skin or a mucous membrane? Topical application
What is an injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space? spinal anesthesia
What is an injection of a local anaesthetic into the extradural space? Epidural anesthesia
What is an injection of a local anaesthetic into the caudal or subcaudal cnal? Caudal anesthesia
What is an injection of a local anaesthetic directly into the tissue? Infiltration anesthesia
What is an injection of a local anaesthetic under the skin? intradermal anesthesia
How do local anesthetics block the response to pain. Blocks nerve fiber conduction by inhibiting sodium ions from crossing the membrane. This inhibits sensory nerves that carry pain.
Why are local anesthetics valuable? Because they block sensory nerves without inhibiting motor nerve functions.
Which nerves are first affected by local anesthetics? Sensory and autonomic nerves.
Which nerves are last affected by local anesthetics? Motor nerves.
What are 2 classes of local anesthetics? Ester and amide.
What is the difference between ester and amide local anesthetics? Esters have a short or moderate duration of action because they are metabolized by enzymes in the blood or skin. Amides have longer duration of action because they are metabolized in the liver.
What body system is mostly affected by systemic absorbtion of a local anesthetic? Blood vessel, heart and brain.
Name an ester local anesthetic. Procaine
Name an amide local anesthetic. Lidocaine
Name a combination of ester and amide local anesthetic. TAC
What is special about cocaine? It induces vasoconstriction.
What are signs of CNS toxicity from local anesthetic injection? (4) Restlessness, blurred vision, slurred speech and dizziness.
What are 2 centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxants? valium and robaxin
Name an alpha-blocker. Flomax
Name a nonselective beta-blocker. Propanolol
Name a selective beta-1 blocker. Bisoprolol
Name an alpha-agonists. NE
Name a beta-agonists. Isoproterenol
Name a beta-1 agonist. Dobutamine
Name a beta-2 agonist. Ventolin
What are the effects of adrenergic neural blockers? (3) 1. Fake NE transmitter 2. Decrease NE storage 3. Decrease NE release.
Name a adrenergic neural blocker Reserpine, methyldopa
What is automatism? Drug induced confusion that can cause increased drug consumption.
What are hyptnotics? drugs used to induce and maintain sleep.
What are sedative? Drugs used to produce mental relaxation and to reduce the desire for physical activity.
What are the 2 types of sleep? REM and NREM
Describe the NREM stages. 1. Alpha waves, still aware, few min. 2. Theta waves, unaware, easily roused, 50% 3/4. Deep sleep, delta waves, physical rest, 25 %
What is REM sleep? Rapid Eye Mouvement sleep, dreaming, 25%, very hard to rouse, beta waves, mental restauration.
What does GABA stands for? Gamma-aminobutyric acid
WHy do you take sedative-hypnotics? To induce or maintain sleep.
Explain BDZ. they increase inhitory activity of GABA.
Where do sonata and ambien bind? BDZ subunit receptor.
What is special about ethanol? It has no half-life. It is not concentration dependent.
What is akathisia? Continuous body mouvement in which an individual is restless.
What is dystonic reaction? Reaction characterized by muscle spasms, twutching, facial grimacing or toticollis.
What is EPS? Mouvement disorder.
What is tardive dyskinesia? Drug-induced involuntary mouvements of the lips, jaw, tongue and extremities.
What are the 2 receptors antagonists of antipsychotics? Dopamine and serotonin.
wHat are the 3 types of depressions? 1. Reactive depression 2. MDD - Major depressive disorder 3. Bipolar mood disorder.
What is the monoamine theory of mental depression? Depression is caused by low levels of serotonin and Ne.
What is a seizure? abnormal electrical discharge of neuron resultin in unvoluntary mouvement.
What is epilepsy? Comdition involving recurrent seizures caused by an underlying neuron activity issue.
What are the types of seizure? Tonic (cont. all), Clonic (cont.-rel), tonic-clonic, myoclonic (clonic 1 area), atonic (loss tone), absence (unconscience)
Created by: kboivin