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Quarter 1 Week 7

Vocabulary from Quarter 1 Week 7

Matter anything that has mass and occupies space.
Elements The basic building blocks of matter. All substances are made up of at least one or more of these.
Atoms The smallest particle of an element. They cannot be divided into smaller particles and still retain the properties of that element.
Protons have a positive(+) charge and are found in the nucleus of the atom.
Electrons have a negative(-) charge and orbit around the nucleus of the atom.
Neutrons have a neutral(n) charge and are also found in the nucleus of the atom.
Periodic Table a table which has the elements arranged according to their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties are in the same column.
Group Elements in the vertical columns of the Periodic Table. Also called "families". Elements in these families have similar chemical properties.
Period Elements in the horizontal rows of the Periodic Table. From left to right, each element adds one additional proton in the nucleus and one more valance electron.
Valence Electrons The outermost, least tightly held electrons.
Noble Gasses Elements found in Group 8A. These are the most stable elements since these they have full outer shells.  Noble gases don't need to bond to become stable, as other elements do.
Atomic Number Found on the Periodic Table, this is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of a chemical element.
Isotope Atoms of the SAME element that have the SAME NUMBER of Protons but DIFFERENT NUMBER of neutrons.
Octet Rule Having 8 electrons in an atom's outer shell will give the atom stability.
Ions Electrically charged atoms. There are positive and negative ions.
Compound Two or more elements CHEMICALLY combined . They cannot be simply seperated.
Molecule the smallest particle in a compound
Ionic Bonding An attraction between two oppositely charged ions formed when one atom donates electron and another atom accepts them. The ions can be held together to form a compound because the ions are oppositely charged (opposites attract).
Covalent Bonding Two atoms SHARE electrons (in the outermost shell) to become chemically bonded.
Chemical Reaction A process that rearranges the molecular structure of a substance and changes it into something "new".
Law of Conservation of Mass the mass of the reactants is the same as the mass of the products. There have to be the same amount of each type of atom on both sides, although they can be rearranged into a different order.
Reactant Starting material in a chemical reaction. This is found on the LEFT side of the arrow.
Product A substance that is formed as the result of a chemical reaction. These are found on the RIGHT side of the arrow in an equation.
pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration; a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Items on the scale between 0-6.9 are acidic, 7 is neutral, and items from 7.1-14 are considered basic.
Physical change is a type of change in which the form of matter is altered but one substance is not transformed into another. For example water turning to ice is still H20, just in different forms.
Chemical change Irreversible chemical reaction involving rearranging atoms of 1 or more substances and a change in its chemical properties/ composition. Results in the formation of at least 1 new substance. Ex: iron oxidizing to form rust-rust can’t change back to iron.
Phase change a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition. Ex: water, ice, and steam are all forms of H2O
Density measurement of how much mass is present in a given volume.
Conductivity the ability to allow heat to transfer or electrons to flow freely through the substance.
Concentration the ratio of solute to solvent in a solution. The higher the ratio, or the more solute added to the solution, the more concentrated it is.
Ductility How flexible a material is. Ex: metals can be drawn out into thin wires.
Malleability the ability of metals to be hammered into thin sheets.
Hardness the ability to resist forces of bending, scratching, cutting or penetrating.
Mixture A composition of two or more substances that are not chemically combined with each other and are capable of being separated. Ex: a garden salad
Homogenous mixture A composition of two or more substances that are not chemically combined with each other and are capable of being separated. The new substance is consistant throughout. Ex: milk (the amount of fat is consistant throughout the gallon)
Hetergeneous mixture Combining of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined with each other and are capable of being separated. The new substance is inconsistent throughout. Ex: vegetable soup – there’s a different combination of ingredients with each spoonful.
Solution A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, which may be solids, liquids, gases, or a combination of these.
Solvent Capable of dissolving another substance. In Kool-Aid, this would be the water.
Solute A substance dissolved in another substance, usually the component of a solution present in the lesser amount. In Kool-Aid, this would be the powder.
Created by: mathewsecot