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Ch 15-16,22-23


epilepsy When groups of neurons (nerve cells in the brain) spontaneously begin to send out electrical impulses in an abnormal, uncontrolled (electrical storm) way.
Grand mal seizures are characterized by: LOC (loss of consciousness), tonic-clonic seizures, tongue biting, incontinence
tonic-clonic seizures violent rapid contraction and relaxation of the muscles
Petit mal seizures are characterized by: disorientation, facial twitching
Petit mal seizures are AKA absence seizures
Absense seizures are more common in: children
Narcolepsy is a type of absence seizure characterized by an unexpected sudden LOC
Aura a warning sign/symptom of an impending seizure
postictal period 5-30 minute time period just after a seizure where the victim is confused
Medications used to treat seizures are called antiseizure meds, antiepileptics, anticonvulsants
Antiseizure meds include: Dilantin (phenyton), Luminal (phenobarbital), Lamictal, Keppra, Topamax
Use of Topamax during pregnancy has been linked to birth defects such as cleft labia and/or palate
Status epilepticus exteme seizure activity
Meds to treat status epilepticus: diazepam AKA Valium or Diastat
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by an irreversible and progressive loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex.
Manifestations include progressive difficulty with memory, judgment, and reasoning that eventually progresses to dementia.
Drugs to treat AD: Aricept, Exelon, Namenda
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by: Shaking tremors, Muscle rigidity, Bradykinesia (slowness of movement), Mask-like facial expression, Drooling, Shuffling gait progressing to a loss of ability to ambulate
dopamine A neurotransmitter in the brain that causes PD
Drugs to treat PD include: carbidopa + levodopa AKA Duodopa, Parcopa, Sinemet; Requip, Mirapex
Mirapex also treats: restless leg syndrome (RLS)
hypnotics meds to treat insomnia
hypnotics include: Ambien, Lunesta, Rozerem, Restoril AKA temazepam, Dalmane AKA flurazepam
OTC hypnotics include: Nytol, Sominex. These drugs contain diphenhydramine AKA Benadryl
Benadryl (diphenhydramine) is also classified as an: antihistamine
A common side effect of antihistamines is: drowsiness
A neurosis is characterized by: anxiety, anxiousness, and tension at a more intense level than normal
Anxiety can be associated with phobias such as: Acrophobia (fear of heights), Arachnophobia (fear of spiders), Ophidiophobia (fear of snakes), Agoraphobia (fear of open spaces),Claustrophobia (fear of confined spaces)
Medications used to treat neuroses are called: sedatives, antianxiety drugs, minor tranquilizers
Sedatives include: Xanax AKA alprazolam, Librium AKA chlordiazepoxide, Tranxene, Valium AKA diazepam, Ativan AKA lorazepam
Sedatives can lose effectiveness if combined with: caffeine
Psychosis is characterized by losing touch with reality and can result in illusions, delusions, and hallucinations
An illusion is a: false interpretation of a sensory stimulus
A delusion is a: A false belief
A hallucination is a: sensory perception that is not caused by an external stimulus
Medications used to treat psychoses are called: major tranquilizers, antipsychotics, neuroleptics
Antipsychotics include: Thorazine AKA clorpromazine, Seroquel, Abilify, Risperdal, Zyprexa, haloperidol AKA Haldol, catapres AKA clonidine
Tourette's syndrome: involuntary body movements and vocal outbursts
MDD major depressive disorder AKA clinical depression
Meds to treat MDD: antidepressants: Lexapro, Effexor, Cymbalta, Prozac, Paxil, Abilify, Zoloft, Wellbutrin, Pristiq
ASD atrial septal defect
VSD ventricular septal defect
PPHN peripheral pulmonary hypertension of the neonate
SB spina bifida
The interaction of Pristiq with NSAIDs or anticoagulants can cause: bleeding tendencies
The interaction of Pristiq with antimigraine medication can cause: sudden death
Side effects of Pristiq: HTN, hypercholesterolemia, increased IOP
Depression has been linked to a deficiency of : omega 3 fatty acids
Manic-depressive illness (MDI) is characterized by: cyclic extreme mood swings between two opposite poles of emotion
MDI AKA BMD bipolar mental disorder
Meds to treat BMD: Lithobid AKA lithium, Seroquel, Thorazine AKA chlorpromazine, Abilify, Risperdal, Zyprexa, Topamax
ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and excessive motor activity
Meds to treat ADHD: Focalin, Catapres, Ritalin or Concerta AKA methylphenidate, Adderall
Antabuse: med to treat alcoholism
Mixing alcohol and Anatbuse will cause: cephalagia, vertigo, and N+V
analgesics are also classified as: narcotic analgesics and non-narcotic analgesics
euphoria state of well being caused by narcotics
Narcotic analgesics include: Stadol, codeine, Dilaudid, meperidine AKA Demerol, MS Contin or Roxanol AKA morphine sulfate, Nubain, OxyCotin, Talwin
Non narcotic analgesics: APAP (non narcotic and antipyretic), ASA (Anacin, Ecotrin, Emprin)
Bleeding problems can occur if acetaminophen is combined with: Gingko biloba
The classifications for ASA are: anticoagulant, non narcotic analgesic, NSAID and antipyretic
Buffered ASA: Alka-Seltzer, Ascriptin, Bayer, Bufferin
Buffers include: Al (aluminum), MG (magnesium), Ca (calcium), NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate)
ASA, APAP, diphenhydramine and caffeine combination drugs include: Anacin Max strength (ASA caffeine), Bayer PM (ASA diphenhydramine), Vanquish (ASA APAP caffeine), Excedrin (ASA, APAP caffiene)
Combination narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics include:: Empirin 3 (ASA codeine), Percodan/Roxiprin (ASA oxycodone), Percocet, Roxilox, Roxicet, Tylox, Endocet (oxycodone APAP) Tylenol 3, Vicodin (APAP hydrocodone)
Narcotic and non-narcotic medications are commonly combined to produce a: synergistic effect
NSAIDS include: Ansaid, Indocin AKA indomethacin, Naprosyn/Aleve AKA naproxen, Feldene, Clinoril, Celebrex, Advil+Motrin AKA ibprofen
The classifications for Advil + Motrin (ibuprofen) include: antipyretic, non naroctic analgesic, and NSAID
migraine chronic, severe, remporal headache accompanied by N+V and photophobia
Meds to treat migraines: Imitrex, atenolol AKA Tenormin, metoprolol AKA Lopressor/Toprol, nadolol AKA Corgard, Inderal AKA propranolol, Cardizem, Calan, Ergomar, Treximet, Topamax
general anesthesia involves: LOC
local anesthesia invlolves: small area of skin and adjacent tissue
regional antesthesia: nerve block
spinal anesthesia: subarachnoid space
epidural anesthesia: epidural space
Anesthetics include: Solarcaine, Xylocaine, Marcaine, Novocain, Ponticaine
Induction of anesthesia refers to the: inital anesthesia that causes LOC
Other anesthesia is then given to place the patient in a: coma
Medications used as an induction anesthetic includes: etomidate, Pentothal
A neuromuscular blocker causes muscular paralysis and includes: Anectine AKA succinylcholine (succs)
A preoperative medication designed to decrease airway secretions is called: atropine
Dilantin (antiseizure) phenytoin
Luminal (antiseizure) phenobarbital
Lamictal (antiseizure)
Keppra (antiseizure)
Topamax (antiseizure)(BMD/MDI)
Valium (status epilepticus)(sedative) diazepam
Diastat (status epilepticus) diazepam
Aricept (AD)
Exelon (AD)
Namenda (AD)
Duodopa (PD) carbidopa + levodopa
Parcopa (PD) carbidopa + levodopa
Sinemet (PD) carbidopa + levodopa
Requip (PD)
Mirapex (PD) (RLS)
Ambien (hypnotic)
Lunesta (hypnotic)
Rozerem (hypnotic)
Restoril (hypnotic) temazepam
Dalmane (hypnotic) flurazepam
Nytol OTC hypnotic
Sominex OTC hypnotic
Benadryl (antihistamine) diphenhydramine
Xannax (sedative) alprazolam
Librium (sedative) chlordiazepoxide
Tranxene (sedative)
Ativan (sedative) lorazepam
Thorazine (antipsychotic) (BMD/MDI)chlorpromazine
Seroquel (antipsychotic)(BMD/MDI)
Abilify (antipsychotic)(antidepressant)(BMD/MDI)
Risperdal (antipsychotic)(BMD/MDI)
Zyprexa (antipsychotic)(BMD/MDI)
Haldol (antipsychotic)(tourette's) haloperidol
Catapres (antipsychotic)(ADHD) clonidine
Lexapro (antidepressant)
Effexor (antidepressant)
Cymbaalta (antidepressant)
Prozac (antidepressant)
Paxil (antidepressant)
Zoloft (antidepressant)(MDD)
Wellbutrin (antidepressant) Zyban
Pristiq (antidepressant)
Lithbid (BMD/MDI) lithium
Focalin (ADHD)
Ritalin (ADHD)
Concerta (ADHD) methylphenidate
Adderall (ADHD)
Antabuse alcoholism
Stadol (Narcotic analgesic)
codeine (Narcotic analgesic)(antitussive)
Dilaudid (Narcotic analgesic)
Demerol (Narcotic analgesic) meperidine
Ms Contin (Narcotic analgesic) morphine sulfate
Roxanol (Narcotic analgesic) morphine sulfate
Nubain (Narcotic analgesic)
OxyContin (Narcotic analgesic) oxycodone
Talwin (Narcotic analgesic)
Panadol (Narcotic analgesic)APAP
Ansaid (NSAID)
Indocin (NSAID) indomethacin
Naprosyn (NSAID) naproxen
Aleve (NSAID) naproxen
Imatrex (migraines)
Tenormin (migraines) atenolol
Toprol (migraines) metoprolol
Corgard (migraines) nadolol
Inderal (migraines) propranolol
Cardizem (migraines) diltiazem
Calan (migraines) verpamil
Ergomar (migraines) ergotamine
Treximet (migraines)
Topamax (migraines)
Solarcaine (anesthetic)
Xylocaine (anesthetic) lidocaine
Marcaine (anesthetic)
Novocain (anesthetic) procaine
Pontocaine (anesthetic)
Anectine (neuromuscular blocker) succinylcholine
atropine (decreases airway secretions)
Anacin Max Strength ASA + caffeine
Bayer PM ASA + diphenhyrdramine
Vanquish ASA + caffeine
Excedrine ASA + caffeine
Demerol (narcotic analgesic) meperidine
Clinoril (NSAID)
Celebrex (NSAID)
Feldene (NSAID)
Thorazine (antipsycotic) chlorpromazineTranxene
Tranxene (sedative)
Ativan (sedative) lorazepam
Empirin 3 ASA + codeine
Percodan ASA + oxycodone
Roxiprin ASA + oxycodone
Endocet APAP + oxycodone
Roxilox APAP + oxycodone
Roxicet / Percocet APAP + oxycodone
Concerta (ADHD) methylphenidate
ASA (non-narcotic analgesic) Ecotrin, Emprin, Anacin
Corgard (migraines) nadolol
Lexapro, Paxil, Prozac, and Zoloft use during pregnancy increases the chances of birth defects such as: ASD, VSD
Zyban (Wellbutrin) or Chantix can cause serious neuropsychiatric symptoms such as: changes in behavior, hostility, agitation, depressed mood, suicidal thoughts and behavior, and attempted suicide. 
Abilify can increase the risk of: suicidal tendencies, CVA in elderly dementia patients, hyperglycemia, leukocytopenia, seizures, dysphagia, impaired judgment, and impaired motor skills.
Created by: RBarnes86