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bkx MUS101 P2

MUS-101 Part #2: Music History

Style How we define each period's treatment of the various musical elements
400-1450 Middle Ages
1450-1600 Renaissance
1600-1750 Baroque
1750-1820 Classical
1820-1900 Romantic
1900-1945 Modern
1945-present Post-Modern
Genre A type of piece, such as a song, symphony, opera, dance piece, etc.
4 Periods Within the Medieval Period Early Christian Era, Early Middle Ages, Romanesque Period, Late Middle Ages (Gothic)
5 Instruments From the Medieval Period Recorder, lute, drums, bagpipes, organs
5 Composers/Musicians From the Medieval Period Leonin, Perotin, Phillip de Vitry, Francesco Landini, John Dunstaple
5 Music Examples From the Medieval Period Sacred: Gregorian chant & Motet, Secular: Ce fut en Mai, Puis qu-en oubli, La Quinte Estampie Real
Medieval Genre Vocal & Instrumental; Vocal: Sacred & Secular; Instrumental: Dance
Medieval Form Sacred music influenced by sacred texts; Secular music had more formal repetition; Instrumental music was dance-oriented and structured with formal repetition
Medieval Melody Primary musical element - melodies were mostly vocal
Medieval Rhythm Rhythmic notation did not exist early on; triple meter was common
Medieval Harmony Drone harmony was common in early secular styles
Medieval Sound Sacred music both monophonic & polyphonic; Secular music monophonic or homophonic
Monophonic Music consisting of a single melody without accompaniment
Polyphonic Producing many sounds simultaneously, particularly involving the simultaneous combination of distinct melodies
Homophonic Music characterized by the movement of accompanying parts in the same rhythm as the melody
Text Setting The relationship between melody and text
Syllabic One note per syllable
Neumatic 3 to 4 notes per syllable
Melismatic Many notes per syllable
Cultural Context of Renaissance Creativity, adventure, curiosity, individualism, novelty, rise of the merchant class, printing press, increased secularism, gunpowder, expanding role of musicians
5 Key Figures of the Renaissance Petrarch, Columbus and other explorers, Da Vinci and other artists, Copernicus, Martin Luther
5 Composers/Musicians From the Renaissance Johannes Ockeghem, Josquin Desprez, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palstrina, Orlando de LAssus, Claudio Monteverdi
5 Instruments From the Renaissance Recorder, lute, harpsichord, viol, crumhorn
Renaissance Sound Vocal still predominant; texture is fuller/thicker than in Medieval Period
2 Forms of Instrumental Music in the Renaissance Ricercare and Fantasie; dancing music
2 Popular Dances in the Renaissance Pavan (stately duple meter) & Galliard (lively triple meter)
Text Painting (Word Painting) Creating musical expression that mimics a particular word or phrase in the text
Cultural Context of Baroque Period Age of Reason, scientific method, splintering of Protestant church, oppressive monarchies rule much of Europe, music was written to order, opera begins commercial music - the Period begins with the invention of the opera and ends with the death of Bach
4 Composers from Baroque Period Claudio Monteverdi, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frederick Handel, Johann Sebastian Bach
5 Baroque Genres Opera (Aria & Recitative), Concerto Grosso & Solo Concerto, Baroque Sonata, Dance Suite, Cantata (Solo Cantata & Lutheran Cantata)
Baroque Form "Movement" = complete piece that is part of a larger composition; moods of movements usually contrast (fast, slow, fast, etc.)
Baroque Harmony "Functional" harmony and the appearance of the major/minor system; figured bass (bass notes with numbers that indicate harmony)
Baroque Melody More instrumental in conception (disjunct)
Baroque Rhythm Repeated, recognizable rhythmic patterns are pervasive
Baroque Sound Vocal music is almost always accompanied and a lot of music is now written for instruments alone; Unity of Mood; Doctrine of Affections; terraced dynamics (p and f)
Cultural Context of Classical Period Age of Enlightenment, rise of the middle class and individualism
3 Composers/Musicians From the Classical Period Franz Josef Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven
Classical Genre Symphony, chamber music, opera
Classical Form One of the dominant elements of the Classical style: Sonata form, rondo form, theme and variations, DANCE FORMS are most common
Classical Melody Tuneful, easy to sing, conjunct, symmetrical melodies
Classical Harmony Simple major/minor
Classical Rhythm Flexible, strong meter and pulse, strong rhythmic drive
Classical Sound Homophonic texture, gradual dynamics, piano replaces harpsichord, contrasting moods within a piece, absolute music (music without extracurricular meaning)
4 Sections of the Classical Orchestra Strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion
Culture Context of the Romantic Period Rejection of order and rationality, Dionysus, nature, individualism, creative spirit is more important than process and form and tradition, nationalism, fascination with the past, exoticism, mystery, escapism, adventure and love, excess emotion, etc.
5 Composers/Musicians From the Romantic Period Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Clara Schumann, Hector Berlioz, Franz Lizst
Romantic Form Miniatures and giants
Romantic Rhythm More shifts in tempo
Romantic Melody Less symmetry than classical melodies; larger range, more expressive
Romantic Harmony Expressive chromaticism, wide variety of keys, rapid modulation from one key to another
Romantic Sound Expanded dynamics and tempo, expressive tones
Cultural Context of the Modern Era Musical style becomes enormously diverse and fast-changing
4 Composers/Musicians of the Modern Era Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, Bela Bartok, Aaron Copland
Modern Form and Genre Form and genres of Classical and Baroque Period are revisited along with a continuation of Romantic forms and genres
Modern Melody Not tied to the major/minor system, often very dissonant, generally not easy to sing or remember
Modern Rhythm Expanded vocabulary (division of the beat into more diverse groups), irregular phrase structures and meters, changing meters, polyrhythm
Modern Harmony The Emancipation of Dissonance, new chord structures, alternative tonal systems
Modern Sound Timbre is more important than ever, instrument special effects, percussion plays a prominent role, more emphasis on differentiation rather than blend of sound, "klangfarbenmelodie" ("sound color melody")
Created by: bamkapowxo