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Ch3 Articular System

Clinical Kinesiology Chapter 3

A connection between two bones Joint
What are the purposes of joints? 1)Allow for WEIGHT BEARING 2)Allow for MOTION 3)provide STABILITY
The type of joint that has a thin layer of fibrous periosteum between the bones: fibrous joint
What are the 3 types of fibrous joints? Synarthroses, Syndesmoses, and Gomphoses
The fibrous joint that is commonly called a 'suture joint' and is essentially immovable. Its purpose to provide shape and strength: synarthrosis ex) sutures of the skull
The type of fibrous joint, otherwise known as a ligamentous joint, that has a great deal of fibrous tissue holding the joint together. It provides very little to no motion. syndesmosis ex) distal radioulnar joint, distal tibiofibular joint
This fibrous joint's name means 'bolting together.' This joint occurs between a tooth and the wall of its dental socket in the mandible and maxilla. gomphosis "peg in socket"
___________ ________ allow a SMALL amount of motion, such as bending, twisting, and some compression. amphiarthrodial joints (also called 'cartilaginous joints)
This type of joint is characterized by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage directly connecting the bones: cartilaginous joint/ amphiarthrodial joint
This fibrous joint has interlocking ends, provides NO MOTION, and provides shape and strength: synarthrosis
This fibrous joint has VERY LITTLE to NO MOTION. Its purpose is to provide shape and strength. Examples include the slight twist of the distal tibiofibular joint and of the distal radioulnar joint during supination/pronation of the arm: syndesmosis (also called ligamentous joint)
The joint that has no direct union between the bone ends: synovial joint (also called diarthrodial)
This joint provides stability, absorbs shock, and provides slight movement: cartilaginous/ amphiarthrosis
Vertebral joints are examples of which type of joint? cartilaginous/ amphiarthrosis (the intervertebral disks are made of fibrocartilage)
The first sternocostal joint (the connection between the sternum and first rib) is an example of which type of joint? cartilaginous/ amphiarthrosis (the bones are directly connected with hyaline cartilage)
The epiphyseal plates found in the long bones of children are which kind of joint? cartilaginous/ amphiarthrosis (it is a layer of hyaline cartilage)
Diarthrodial joints are also called: synovial joints
This type of joint is not quite as stable as the other joint types, but it allows for free motion: synovial (diarthrodial) joint
Name the 4 different types of diarthrodial (synovial) joints: nonaxial, uniaxial, biaxial, triaxial (or multiaxial)
The type of motion allowed by a diarthrodial joint depends on: the shape of the bones
The movement provided by this type of diarthrodial joint tends to be linear; the bone surfaces glide over one another, rather than producing angular motion: nonaxial (also called a plane joint)
The other name for nonaxial joint is: plane joint
Intercarpals are examples of this type of joint: nonaxial/ plane joint
Diarthrodial (synovial) joints are classified by ________ ___ ________. degrees of freedom
Degrees of freedom of diarthrodial joints indicate the number of ________ the joint can move in. planes
A nonaxial joint has __ degree(s) of freedom. 0
In this diarthrodial joint, the motion is ACCESSORY; it only occurs SECONDARILY to other joint motion: nonaxial/ plane joint ex) motion of the carpals cannot occur on their own - the movement of another joint produces that motion)
This synovial joint provides 1 degree of freedom: uniaxial (hinge and pivot joints)
The elbow and knee are examples of this specific type of synovial joint: uniaxial - HINGE joint
What are the 2 types of uniaxial joints? hinge joints and pivot joints
The movement between the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) is specifically this type of joint: uniaxial - PIVOT joint
The head of the radius moves around the stationary ulna during pronation and supination of the forearm this is an example of a(n) _________ ________ _________. uniaxial pivot joint
This type of synovial joint provides 2 degrees of freedom: biaxial joint
What are the 2 types of biaxial joints? condyloid joint (also called oviod or ellipsoidal) and saddle joint (also called sellar)
_________ joint motion occurs on 2 different planes. Biaxial
This specific type of synovial joint provides movement on two planes, by a concave surface sliding over a convex surface: biaxial condyloid joint
This specific synovial joint provides movement on two planes, with each articular surface being convex in one plane and concave in the other: biaxial saddle (Sellar) joint
Movement at the wrist is provided by a _________ _________ ________. biaxial condyloid joint
Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints are which type of biaxial joint? condyloid
The carpometacarpal joint (MCP) is which type of biaxial joint? saddle (sellar) - In addition to flexion/extension and abduction/adduction, this joint also has an ACCESORY motion of rotation, but still fits in to the biaxial category because the rotation is not an ACTIVE movement)
This type of synovial joint has 3 degrees of freedom: triaxial joint (multiaxial)
This type of synovial joint allows more motion than any other type: triaxial
_________ joints are ACTIVELY capable of adduction/abduction, flexion/extension, and rotation. triaxial
triaxial joints are also referred to as _______ _____ ________ joints. ball-and-socket
The hip and shoulder are this type of synovial joint: triaxial (ball-and-socket)
In this type of synovial joint, a convex surface fits into a concave socket. Motion is able to occur in the saggital plane, frontal plane, and transverse plane. triaxial (ball-and-socket)
_______ ___ ________ are fixed lines of reference along which the body is divided. Planes of action
This plane divides the body into right and left: saggital plane
Flexion and extension occur in this plane: saggital plane
This plane divides the body into anterior and posterior: frontal plane
abduction and adduction occur in this plane: frontal plane
This plane divides the body into inferior/superior: transverse plane
Internal and external rotation occur in this plane: transverse plane
There are 3 palnes of action, each at ________ angles and perpendicular to the other 2 planes. right
The point where the 3 planes of action intersect is the: Center of Gravity (COG)
In the human body, the location of the ________ ____ _______ is approximately slightly __________ to the second sacral vertebra (S2) center of gravity / anterior
_______ are points that run through the center of a joint, around which a part rotates. Axes
This axis runs through a joint from front to back: sagittal axis
What are the motions that occur around the saggital axis? abduction and adduction
A part that is moving in the frontal plane is moving around the _________ axis. sagittal
This axis runs through a joint from side to side: frontal axis
What are the motions that occur around the frontal axis? flexion and extension
A part that is moving in the sagittal plane is moving around the ________ axis. frontal
This axis runs through a joint from top to bottom: vertical (or longitudinal) axis
What are the movements that occur around the longitudinal axis? Medial/lateral rotation, forearm supination/pronation, shoulder horizontal abduction/adduction
Bands of fibrous connective tissue that SURROUND a joint: capsular ligaments
The two bones of a diarthrodial (synovial) joint are held together and supported by: ligaments
Ligaments provide attachment for _________, ___________, and in some cases, __________. cartilage, fascia, and in some cases, muscle
Ligaments are _________, but NOT _________. This allows joint motion, but ensures bones stay in close approximation to aech other. ARE flexible, but NOT elastic.
fibrous bands that prevent excessive joint movement: ligaments
The part of a synovial joint that surrounds and encases the joint and protects the articular surfaces of bone: joint capsule
What are the 2 layers that make up the joint capsule of synovial joints? Outer layer and the inner layer.
In synovial joints, this layer of the joint capsule is lined with synovial membrane: inner layer
The ________ _________ secretes the fluid that lubricates the articular cartilage, decreases friction to allow joint motion, and provides some shock absorption: synovial membrane (secretes synovial fluid)
The synovial membrane is a ________, ________ connective tissue. thick, vascular
_______ ________ is a clear egg white-like substance that is the major source of nutrition for articular cartilage. synovial fluid
In diarthrodial (synovial) joints, this layer of the joint capsule is made of fibrous tissue and provides support and protection to the joint; it is usually reinforced by ligaments: outer layer
_________ is dense, fibrous connective tissue. Cartilage
This type of cartilage covers the ends of bones and has no nerve supply. It gets all nutrition from synovial fluid. It cannot repair itself if damaged. articular (hyaline) cartilage
This type of cartilage acts as a shock absorber: fibrocartilage
This type of cartilage is especially important in weight-bearing joints like the knee and vertebrae fibrocartilage
This type of cartilage is designed to maintain a structure's shape: elastic cartilage
The cartilage is found in the external ear, the eustachian (auditory) tube, and the larynx: elastic cartilage
This type of connective tissue connects muscle to bone: tendon
Fibrous sleeves that surround a _______ when it is subject to pressure or friction as it passes through muscle or bone are called _______ ________. tendons / tendon sheaths ie) the tendons passing over the wrist
__________ is a broad, flat tendinous sheet. aponeurosis ie) latissimus dorsi connecting to back; linea alba connecting to abdominal muscles
The aponeurosis that attaches the right and left abdominal muscles in the midline of the anterior trunk: linea alba
Small sacs lined with synovial membrane and filled with fluid; located in areas of excessive friction such as under tendons or over bony prominences. Their purpose is to decrease friction between moving parts: bursae
Refers to the COMPLETE separation of the two articular surfaces of a joint, in which a portion of the joint capsule surrounding the joint will be torn: dislocation
fracture: broken bone
A partial dislocation of the joint, usually occurring over time: subluxation
Partial or complete tearing of fibers of a ligament: sprain
The tearing of a FEW ligament fibers, resulting in NO loss of function: mild sprain
The partial tearing of the ligament with some loss of function: moderate sprain
The complete rupture (tear) of the ligament, with complete loss of function: severe sprain
Refers to the overstretching of muscle fibers: strain
Inflammation of a tendon: tendonitis
Inflammation of a tendon sheath: tenosynovitis
Inflammation of the synovial membrane: synovitis
Inflammation of the bursae; bursitis
Inflammation of the joint capsule: capsulitis
Created by: taranorwood