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Skoch Chapter 14


Whole blood is made of what two key components? Blood plasma and formed elements.
Blood plasma is made of what three key components? Protein, water, and other solutes.
What are the three main proteins found in blood? Albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen.
What are the six solutes commonly found in blood? Waste product, vitamins, regulatory substances, gases, nutrients, and electrolytes.
What is the definition of formed elements? These are the solid components of the blood.
What are the three classes of formed elements? White blood cells, platelets, and red blood cells.
What are the five classes of red blood cells? a
What is the relationship between erythrocytes and erythropoesis? They are both froms of red blood cells but erythrocytes contain the oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin.
What is the relationship between reticulocytes and red blood cells? A reticulocyte is just a red blood cell that has ejected it's nucleus.
What is the role of a neutrophil? This helps protect the body against infection by killing and ingestiong pathogens.
What is the role of a monocyte? This helps defend against infectous organisms.
What is the role of a eosinophil? This kills paracites, destroys cancer cells, and is involved in allergic responses.
What is the role of a basophil? This participates in allergic responses.
What is the role of B, T, and natural killer cells? They function in cell-mediate immunity and destroy bacteria while inactivating their toxins.
What is hemostasis? This is a series of responses that stop bleeding when blood vessels are injured.
What are the three methods of reduction of blood loss? They are vascular spasms, platelet formation, and clotting.
What is hemorrhage? This is the loss of a large amount of blood from the vessel.
How does vascular spasms aid in hemostasis? They reduce blood loss for several minutes to several hours during hemostasis.
How does platelet plug formation aid in hemostasis? They come together and form a plug that helps fill the gap in the blood vessel.
How does clotting aid in hemostasis? The gel part of the blood comes out which consists of insoluble fibers called fibrin trapping the formed elements of the blood.
What is the difference between a thrombus and an embolus? A thrombus is the blood clot itself and a embolus is a piece of debris carried through the blood.
What is a pulmonary embolism and why is one dangerous? This is when an embolus gets caught in the lungs, this is dangerous because it may result in a right ventricular failure and kill someone.
What makes one blood group different from another? The presence or absence of various isoantigens.
How is type A blood different from type B blood? Type A blood has the antigen A and type B blood has the antigen B.
Hwo is type AB different from type A and B? Type AB has both the A and B antigen.
What does an anti-A and an anti-B antibody do? Anti-A antibodies react only with antigen A and anti-B antibodies react only with antigen B.
Who has an anti-A antibody, who does not? People with A antigens on the surface of their RBC and B antigens in their blood plasma has an anti-A antibody, people with B antigens on the surfaces and A antigens in the plasma don't.
Who has an anti-B antibody, who does not. People with B antigens on the surface of their RBC and A antigens in their blood plasma has an anti-B antibody, people with A antigens on the surfaces and B antigens in the plasma don't.
What happens in an incompatible blood transfusion? Aintibodies in the recipient's plasma bind to the antigens on the donated RBCs.
What is the difference between Rh+ and Rh- blood? People who are Rh+ have Rh antigens and peole who are Rh- do not have the Rh antigens.
What is anemia and what are the symptoms of anemia? This is when the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced, people become fatigued and intlerant to cold, they also appear very pale.
What is the cause of iron-deficiency anemia? The cause is inadequate absorption of iron, excessive loss of iron, or insufficient intake of iron.
What is the cause of pernicious anemia? The cause is insuffiecient hemopoiesis resulting from an inability of the stomach to produce intrinsic factor.
What is the cause of hermorrhagic anemia? The cause is excessive loss of RBCs through bleeding resulting from large wounds, stomach ulcers, or especially heavy menstration.
What is the cause of hemolytic anemia? The cause can be from inherited defects or from outside agents such as parasites, toxins, or antibodies from incompatible transfused blood.
What is the cause of thalassemia (anemia)? The cause is a group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is an abnormaility in one or more of the four polypeptide chains of the hemoglobin molecule.
What is the cause of aplastic anemia? The cause is destruction of the red bone marrow caused by toxins, gamma radiation, and certain medications that inhibit enzymes needed for hemopoesis.
What are the causes and symptoms of sickle cell anemia? The cause is an abnormal kind of hemoglobin termed hemoglobin S, or Hb S, symptoms are prolonged oxygen reduction that eventually causes sxtensive tissue damage.
What are the causes and symptoms of hemophilia? The cause is an inherited deficiency of clotting, symptoms are spontaneous or traumatic subcutaneous and intramuscular hemorrhaging, nosebleeds, blood in the urine, and hemorrhages in joints that produce pain and tissue damage.
What are the causes and symptoms of leukemia? The cause is uncontrolled production and accumulation of immature leukocytes, symptoms are crowded normally functioning WBCs. RBCs, and platelets.
Reticylocyte Counting the volume of reticulocytes in a sample of blood-measures rate of erythropoesis.
Hematocrit Counting the percent of a blood sample that is composed of RBCs. Diagnoses anemia.
Differential WBC count Count various forms of WBC to access for infections and manufacture of WBCs.
Complete Blood Count Measure volume of all blood components, measures blood components that are out of range.
-emia blood condition
erythr(o)- red
gluc(o)- sugar, glucose
glyc(o)- sugar, sweet
hem(o), hemat(o) blood, hemmorrhage
-rrhagia hemorrhage, excessive discharge
phleb(o) vein
thromb(o) blood clot
Created by: danielle.skoch