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2/8 quiz LEC

3 Characteristics of enzymes 1. Specific 2. small changes 3. operate in sequence (metabolic pathways)
enzyme specificity determined by 3D shape of enzyme
metabolic pathway sequence of enzyme operation
2 examples of End Products of Metabolism (cholesterol) 1.Vitamin D 2.Testosterone
ending usually denotes an enzyme -ase
enzymes are named according to 2 things 1. substrate attacked 2. reaction type (what it does)
hydrase adds H2O
dehydrase takes away H2O & adds a P
definition of energy capacity to do work
energy can be measured by joules
define calorie heat needed to raise 1g water 1°C
define Calorie (kcal) heat needed to raise 1000g water 1°C
type of calorie assumed by grocers Calorie (kcal)
define Phosphorylation addition of a P to a chemical
What type of reaction is ADP + P + energy --> ATP Phosphorylation example
amount of energy needed for Phosphorylation 7 kcal
Why are oxidation reduction reactions important? important because many release large quantities of energy (at least 7kcal)
reduction reactions that happen simultaneously oxidation & reduction happen
oxidation loss of electron
reduction gain of electron
while one substance is being reduced while another substance is being oxidized
what type of reaction and why is it important? Fe+2 --> 1e- + Fe+3 oxidation reaction is important b/c releases energy (large amt) & puts into ATP form
what type of reaction? Fe+3 + 1e- --> Fe+2 Reduction reaction example
A-P~P + ~ + P --> results in A-P~P~P
energy required to convert ATP/ADP/AMP is called is called work
anaerobic No O2
Process that with anaerobic advantage Gycolysis
Glycolysis takes place in the takes place in the cytoplasm
Glycolysis uses uses 2 ATP
3 things about gycolysis 1. 2 ATP 2. anaerobic 3. cytoplasm
1g carb = = 4kcal
1g protein = = 4 kcal
1g fat = = 9 kcal
carbohydrate metabolism uses fats, carbs, proteins
used primarily for energy glucose catabolism
how may steps are in glucose catabolism 19 enzymes/steps
glucose catabolism creates byproducts and 686 kcal
686 kcal from glucose catabolism is used for 262 kcal ATP and 420 kcal heat to keep body warm
pyruvic acid is reduced to ______ in humans lactic acid
pyruvic acid is reduced to ______ in yeast ethyl alcohol
pyruvic acid is reduced to ______ in other organcic molecules Fermentation
lactic acid, ethyl alcohol, Fermentation are anaerobic
intermediate step only happens if only happens if O2 is present
lose carbon decarboxylation
another name for krebs cycle citric acid cycle
krebs cycle happens in happens in mitochondrion matrix
3 phases of glycolysis 1. Glucose 6P 2. Glyceraldehyde 3P 3. Pyruvic Acid
excess Acetyl CoA is called is called Ketone Bodies
example of ketone acid (1 of 2) acetone
excess ketone bodies can lead to can lead to ketosis and acidosis(comma)
Created by: la66